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  • 14-December-2022

    English

    Going Digital to Advance Data Governance for Growth and Well-being

    Data are generated wherever digital technologies are deployed namely, in almost every part of modern life. Using these data can empower individuals, drive innovation, enable new digital products and improve policy making and public service delivery. But as data become more widely used across sectors and applications, the potential for misuse and harm also grows. To advance data governance for growth and well-being, this report advocates a holistic and coherent approach to data governance, domestically and across borders. It examines how data have emerged as a strategic asset, with the ability to transform lives and confer economic advantage. It explains how the unique characteristics of data can pose complex trade-offs and challenge policies that pre-date the data-driven era. This report provides new insights, evidence and analysis and outlines considerations for better data governance policies in the digital age.
  • 14-December-2022

    English

    Going Digital Guide to Data Governance Policy Making

    The ubiquitous collection, use, and sharing of data that power today’s economies challenge existing governance frameworks and policy approaches. Drawing on the extensive research and analysis conducted at the OECD on data governance, on countries’ policies and practices, and the OECD legal instruments in this area, the Going Digital Guide to Data Governance Policy Making supports policy makers in navigating three fundamental policy tensions that characterise efforts to develop, revise, and implement policies for data governance across policy domains in the digital age: balancing data openness and control while maximising trust; managing overlapping and potentially conflicting interests and regulations related to data; incentivising investments in data and their effective re-use. The operative part of the guide consists of a checklist of questions to orient policy makers as they develop and revise effective policies for data governance, based on possible policy approaches and real-life examples.
  • 14-December-2022

    English

    Fostering cross-border data flows with trust

    Data flows are critical for our global economic and social interactions, but trust is necessary to facilitate data sharing, especially across borders. The challenge is to foster a global digital environment that enables the movement of data across international borders while ensuring that, upon crossing a border, data are granted the desired oversight and protection – a concept known as ‘data free flow with trust’ (DFFT). This report summarises how different countries and stakeholders are pursuing cross-border data flows with trust through direct and indirect approaches, across different levels, fora and policy communities. It then looks at related issues to promoting DFFT namely: interoperability of privacy and data protection frameworks; government access to personal data held by the private sector; and data localisation measures. The report shows that, although differences remain, there are commonalities, complementarities and elements of convergence that can help to build trust, foster future interoperability, and advance DFFT.
  • 14-December-2022

    English

    Responding to societal challenges with data - Access, sharing, stewardship and control

    Data access, sharing and re-use ('data openness') can generate significant social and economic benefits, including addressing public health emergencies such as the COVID-19 pandemic and achieving the Sustainable Development Goals. However, data openness also comes with risks to individuals and organisations – notably risks to privacy and data protection, intellectual property rights, digital and national security. It also raises ethical concerns where data access, sharing and re-use undermine ethical values and norms. This report demonstrates how approaches to data stewardship and control that are more balanced and differentiated can maximise the benefits of data, while protecting individuals’ and organisations’ rights and taking into account other legitimate interests and public policy objectives. It presents the mix of technical, organisational and legal approaches that characterises these more balanced and differentiated approaches, and how governments have implemented them.
  • 16-November-2022

    English

    OECD news on innovation, science, technology and industry

    This newsletter delivers the latest reports, statistics and policy recommendations from the OECD Directorate for Science, Technology and Innovation.

    Related Documents
  • 15-November-2022

    English

    Measuring the environmental impacts of artificial intelligence compute and applications - The AI footprint

    Artificial intelligence (AI) systems can use massive computational resources, raising sustainability concerns. This report aims to improve understanding of the environmental impacts of AI, and help measure and decrease AI’s negative effects while enabling it to accelerate action for the good of the planet. It distinguishes between the direct environmental impacts of developing, using and disposing of AI systems and related equipment, and the indirect costs and benefits of using AI applications. It recommends the establishment of measurement standards, expanding data collection, identifying AI-specific impacts, looking beyond operational energy use and emissions, and improving transparency and equity to help policy makers make AI part of the solution to sustainability challenges.
  • 15-November-2022

    English

    Building better societies through digital policy - Background paper for the CDEP Ministerial meeting

    Building more equitable, connected, cohesive and sustainable societies is at the top of policy agendas, but several challenges stand in the way of achieving this goal. The report focuses on three key challenges policy makers face in the pursuit of better societies: bridging digital divides, combatting harmful content online, and effectively harnessing digital technologies to fight climate change and other environmental problems. This report provides insights into key trends across OECD countries and partner economies, and offers policy actions that can help decision makers tackle these three critical challenges, together with better measurement. The report builds on previous work on the topic and seeks to inform further debate and discussion on how to ensure that today’s divides, biases and inequalities are not perpetuated into the future.
  • 15-November-2022

    English

    Digital enablers of the global economy - Background paper for the CDEP Ministerial meeting

    Digital technologies have transformed the global economy. This paper discusses three underlying digital enablers of the economy and the challenges they pose for policy makers: (1) Online platforms, which support global transactions and interactions but are also disrupting existing consumer and competition policy frameworks; (2) Cross-border data flows, which facilitate global trade and co-operation but also amplify policy concerns that have motivated countries to place conditions on these data flows; and (3) Digital security, which should be prioritised to embed trust into the digital economy, but has often remained an afterthought owing to knowledge asymmetries across the market. Given that these challenges are all international in nature, a global response is needed to address them. The OECD is well-suited to foster international co-operation on these digital enablers and support countries’ ambitions for global digital policy frameworks.
  • 15-November-2022

    English

    Harnessing the power of AI and emerging technologies - Background paper for the CDEP Ministerial meeting

    AI and emerging technologies offer tremendous opportunities for well-being, productivity, growth and solving pressing societal challenges. However, they also pose risks to human rights, fairness and human agency, among others. Many countries recognise the need to develop forward-looking policies and adapt governance frameworks to keep pace with these developments and to leverage technological benefits while mitigating risks. This paper builds on the OECD’s extensive work on AI, data governance and connectivity to support policy makers in this process. It highlights the importance of co-operating internationally to ensure that emerging technologies are trustworthy and calls for building a common understanding of AI and emerging technologies, sharing good practices and creating the evidence base to inform policy design, implementation and evaluation.
  • 15-November-2022

    English

    Putting people first in digital transformation - Background paper for the CDEP Ministerial meeting

    Digital transformation affects every aspect of our lives, providing new spaces and tools for us to connect, work, consume, and enjoy our rights. It offers a multitude of social and economic opportunities, but also brings new and complex risks. An empowering and safe digital environment that puts people first is therefore a core policy goal of the digital age. Through the lens of a fictional family navigating these opportunities and risks, this paper looks at how digital transformation impacts us as individuals, be it as citizens, consumers, or workers. It outlines the policy landscape, and describes the international, multi-stakeholder, and nuanced efforts needed to strike a balance between different rights, interests, and values. A background paper for the 2022 Digital Economy Ministerial meeting, this paper supports senior policy makers in designing and achieving a human-centric digital transformation.
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