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  • 15-September-2021

    English

    OECD Reviews of Innovation Policy: Kuwait 2021

    The slowdown in market demand for oil is putting increasing pressure on Kuwait's current economic and social model. This model is based on the distribution of petroleum export proceeds to Kuwaiti citizens, with relatively limited long-term investment in knowledge production and the upgrading of the national innovation capacity. The transition towards a knowledge-based society – where value creation, the resolution of societal challenges and the well-being of society at large will be based on the production, diffusion and implementation of knowledge – is becoming an imperative. This is recognised within the national development strategy which formulates the objective of attaining 'Smart Kuwait' by 2035. Such a transition is challenging and can only be achieved through the build-up of appropriate governance of the STI system with adequate institutions such as a Ministry and a professional agency with a mandate for research and innovation. This set-up should help raise awareness and reduce barriers to innovation, reinforce the scientific research base, develop the support for business innovation, foster knowledge diffusion and co‑creation between science and industry, build up the human capital needed, and establish the role of science, technology and innovation in tackling Kuwait's societal challenges.
  • 1-September-2021

    English

    Production Transformation Policy Review of Shenzhen, China - A Journey of Continuous Learning

    Shenzhen is a stellar case of growth and economic transformation. Since its establishment as one of China’s first four Special Economic Zones in 1980, it has evolved at breakneck speed. Shenzhen transformed from a fishing village to a major world trade hub and is now home to global innovators in electronics. The Production Transformation Policy Review (PTPR) of Shenzhen, China reviews the city’s changing policy approaches, focusing on the shift from an assembly to a manufacturing centre and more recently to an innovation and start-up hub. Through a comprehensive assessment of Shenzhen’s experience, this review offers insights into the range of policies and strategies employed to stimulate industrial upgrading and learning in China. It provides lessons and actionable policy recommendations for the growth of cities and emerging economies in their catching-up journey. The PTPR of Shenzhen, China has been carried out in the framework of the OECD Initiative for Policy Dialogue on Global Value Chains, Production Transformation and Development and has benefitted from government-business dialogues and international peer learning (University of Seoul, Korea; University of Georgetown, USA and Digital India Foundation, India).
  • 29-July-2021

    English

    Corporate effective tax rates for R&D - The case of expenditure-based R&D tax incentives

    R&D tax incentives have become a widely used policy tool to promote business R&D. How do they shape firms’ incentives to invest in R&D? This paper contributes a methodology to construct forward-looking effective tax rates for an R&D investment that reflect the value of expenditure-based R&D tax incentives. The new OECD estimates cover 48 countries and consider the case of large profitable firms, accounting for the bulk of R&D in most economies. The results provide new insights into the generosity of R&D tax incentives from the perspective of firms that decide on whether or where to invest in R&D (extensive margin) and the level (intensive margin) of R&D investment. The generosity of the favourable tax treatment of R&D is shown to vary at the intensive and extensive margins, highlighting differences in countries’ strategies to support R&D through the tax system.
  • 29-July-2021

    English

    Measuring Tax Support for R&D and Innovation

    Governments worldwide increasingly rely on tax incentives in addition to direct support measures (e.g. grants) to promote R&D in firms and encourage innovation and economic growth. The OECD has developed experimental methodologies and a detailed database on R&D tax incentives with the latest indicators on the cost and information on the design and scope of R&D tax incentives.

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  • 29-July-2021

    English

    Making life richer, easier and healthier - Robots, their future and the roles for public policy

    This paper addresses the current and emerging uses and impacts of robots, the mid-term future of robotics and the role of policy. Progress in robotics will help to make life easier, richer and healthier. Wider robot use will help raise labour productivity. As science and engineering progress, robots will become more central to crisis response, from helping combat infectious diseases to maintaining critical infrastructure. Governments can accelerate and orient the development and uptake of socially valuable robots, for instance by: supporting cross-disciplinary R&D, facilitating research commercialisation, helping small and medium-size enterprises (SMEs) understand the opportunities for investment in robots, supporting platforms that highlight robot solutions in healthcare and other sectors, embedding robotics engineering in high school curricula, tailoring training for workers with vocational-level mechanical skills, supporting data development useful to robotics, ensuring flexible regulation conducive to innovation, strengthening digital connectivity, and raising awareness of the importance of robotics.
  • 28-July-2021

    English

    OECD news on innovation, science, technology and industry

    This newsletter delivers the latest reports, statistics and policy recommendations from the OECD Directorate for Science, Technology and Innovation.

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  • 23-July-2021

    English

    OECD International Survey of Science

    The International Survey of Science (ISSA) collects information on the activities of authors of scientific publications through a global online survey. It aims to complement other available statistical evidence and indicators in order to provide insights on selected aspects of research and inform science policy.

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  • 22-July-2021

    English

    Open Science

    The OECD is working with member and non-member economies to review policies to promote open science and to assess their impact on research and innovation.

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  • 20-July-2021

    English

    Space technology transfers and their commercialisation

    This paper examines space technology transfers and their commercialisation, focussing on transfers from publicly funded space programmes to different sectors of the economy. It notably compares practices from Europe, North America and Asia for the first time. It identifies the conditions for enabling successful space technology transfers, as well as the most common channels for commercialisation. The paper also reviews methodological issues in measuring and assessing the benefits of transfers, and provides recommendations to develop improved and internationally comparable evidence. The analysis benefits from original content and endorsement from some of the most active space agencies in OECD countries and beyond.
  • 20-July-2021

    English

    Bridging connectivity divides

    As countries weather the COVID-19 health emergency, high-quality connectivity, more than ever, is essential to ensure that economic activities can continue in a remote manner. However, important disparities in terms of connectivity persist, aggravating the consequences of the health emergency. Therefore, policies aiming to reduce connectivity divides are of paramount importance. This report explores policies and regulations in OECD countries that have proven successful to work towards closing connectivity divides. It offers a roadmap to policy makers on the overarching policies and regulatory measures to expand connectivity, as well as the tailored approaches to extend broadband networks in rural and remote areas.
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