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  • 3-August-2022

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    OECD news on innovation, science, technology and industry

    This newsletter delivers the latest reports, statistics and policy recommendations from the OECD Directorate for Science, Technology and Innovation.

    Related Documents
  • 2-August-2022

    English

    Towards a new stage in Norway's science, technology and innovation system - Improving the long-term plan for research and higher education

    This study assesses the implementation of the recommendations from the OECD Innovation Policy Review of Norway 2017 along four major themes: (1) Developing research communities of outstanding quality; (2) Enhancing competitiveness and innovation capacity; (3) Tackling major social challenges; and (4) Improving the governance of the science, technology and innovation system. The results of this assessment are then used to identify new opportunities for reforms in the Norwegian Long-term plan for Research and Higher Education 2023-2032. While focused on Norway, the report also provides lessons on key issues, such as the sustainable transition of advanced economies, that can be useful in other national contexts.
  • 21-July-2022

    English

    Production Transformation Policy Review of Shenzhen, China - A Journey of Continuous Learning

    Shenzhen is a stellar case of growth and economic transformation. Since its establishment as one of China’s first four Special Economic Zones in 1980, it has evolved at breakneck speed. Shenzhen transformed from a fishing village to a major world trade hub and is now home to global innovators in electronics. The Production Transformation Policy Review (PTPR) of Shenzhen, China reviews the city’s changing policy approaches, focusing on the shift from an assembly to a manufacturing centre and more recently to an innovation and start-up hub. Through a comprehensive assessment of Shenzhen’s experience, this review offers insights into the range of policies and strategies employed to stimulate industrial upgrading and learning in China. It provides lessons and actionable policy recommendations for the growth of cities and emerging economies in their catching-up journey. The PTPR of Shenzhen, China has been carried out in the framework of the OECD Initiative for Policy Dialogue on Global Value Chains, Production Transformation and Development and has benefitted from government-business dialogues and international peer learning (University of Seoul, Korea; University of Georgetown, USA and Digital India Foundation, India).
  • 20-July-2022

    English

    Broadband networks of the future

    The future is digital and enabled by globally interconnected and high-quality broadband networks. However, high-quality networks across the OECD are far from universal and applications across all sectors of the economy, from smart factories and hospitals to automated vehicles, are increasing the overall demand on networks and requiring them to evolve. Furthermore, to ensure everyone can participate in in this digital future, their expansion at affordable prices to un- and under-served areas needs to continue at pace. This report explores how surging demand is shaping future networks and identifies the four main technological trends that are driving this evolution. It then takes a closer look at measuring the quality of communication services delivered through those networks to inform policy making. Finally, it provides an overview of how policies and regulations are adapting to support the upgrade and expansion of high-quality broadband networks across the OECD.
  • 12-July-2022

    English

    OECD Handbook on Measuring the Space Economy, 2nd Edition

    Much has changed in the space economy over the past decade, with an ever-growing number of countries and business enterprises involved in space activities. Despite progress made in the quality and availability of data, the international comparability of space economy statistics remains limited. A decade after its first publication, it is therefore time to provide an up-to-date revision of the OECD Handbook on Measuring the Space Economy to reflect the changing landscape of space activities, space technologies and subsequent evolving user needs. This new edition aims to encourage and facilitate data collection among both incumbents and new actors involved in space activities, respond to the needs of the public agencies that still fund the bulk of space programmes, and support industry and private decision-takers who will also benefit from improved statistics on the space economy.
  • 8-July-2022

    English

    Using Artificial Intelligence in the workplace - What are the main ethical risks?

    Artificial Intelligence (AI) systems are changing workplaces. AI systems have the potential to improve workplaces, but ensuring trustworthy use of AI in the workplace means addressing the ethical risks it can raise. This paper reviews possible risks in terms of human rights (privacy, fairness, agency and dignity); transparency and explainability; robustness, safety and security; and accountability. The paper also reviews ongoing policy action to promote trustworthy use of AI in the workplace. Existing legislation to ensure ethical workplaces must be enforced effectively, and serve as the foundation for new policy. Economy- and society-wide initiatives on AI, such as the EU AI Act and standard-setting, can also play a role. New workplace-specific measures and collective agreements can help fill remaining gaps.
  • 6-July-2022

    English

    Potential spatial impacts of the war in Ukraine - A case study from Italy

    The impacts of the war in Ukraine will be felt severely within OECD economies, especially in border regions on the front-line of the humanitarian refugee crisis. The economic impacts, in particular those driven by rising energy prices, will also be spatially differentiated, affecting some regions more than others. Italy is no exception, with gas-intensive industries concentrated in northern regions, and wheat-based food and farming prevailing in southern regions and islands. While, overall, Russia accounted for a minor share of Italian exports, some regions and industries are more vulnerable than others to falls in bilateral trade, including destinations popular with high per-capita expenditure Russian tourists.
  • 4-July-2022

    English

    Towards net-zero - Interoperability of technologies to transform the energy system

    To achieve net-zero emissions by the middle of the century, fossil fuels must be replaced as the main source of energy with more sustainable alternatives such as wind or solar power. To do so, high levels of interoperability, or the ability for technologies to seamlessly integrate, effectively communicate, and undertake tasks to achieve desired outcomes, are required. However, there is no universal approach, and interoperability in the energy system must be determined in specific use cases. This Toolkit note discusses why interoperability is necessary in the energy system, the benefits and challenges to realising interoperability in the energy sector, and the role of policy in fostering interoperability to achieve net-zero emissions in the medium-term. The note argues for greater use of open data to maximise electricity system efficiency, an increase in the use of low-carbon energy, and the minimisation of the long-term costs of increased electricity demand.
  • 22-June-2022

    English

    Integrity and security in the global research ecosystem

    Responsibilities for research integrity and security are distributed across multiple actors in the international research ecosystem. These include, national governments, research funding agencies, research institutions, universities, academic associations, and intergovernmental organisations. This report describes policy initiatives and actions to safeguard national and economic security whilst protecting freedom of enquiry, promoting international research cooperation, and ensuring openness and non-discrimination. It includes examples of actions that are being taking to prevent foreign interference, manage risks, and help ensure trust in science in the future, and offers recommendations to help countries develop effective policies to strengthen research security as part of a broader framework of research integrity.
  • 20-May-2022

    English

    Companion Document to the OECD Recommendation on Children in the Digital Environment

    The OECD Recommendation on Children in the Digital Environment provides guidance for governments and other stakeholders on putting in place policies and procedures to empower and protect children in the digital environment. The Recommendation was developed in recognition that the digital environment is a fundamental part of children’s daily lives, and that strong policy frameworks are needed to both protect children from any potential harm, and to help them realise the opportunities that it can bring. This companion document aims to assist governments and other stakeholders in implementing the Recommendation. It expands upon the context in which the Recommendation was developed, and considers in detail specific aspects of the Recommendation, in particular different stakeholders and their roles (e.g. parents, governments, digital service providers) as well as key underlying concepts such as children’s privacy, digital literacy and child safety by design.
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