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  • 22-March-2022

    English

    The Strategic and Responsible Use of Artificial Intelligence in the Public Sector of Latin America and the Caribbean

    Governments can use artificial intelligence (AI) to design better policies and make better and more targeted decisions, enhance communication and engagement with citizens, and improve the speed and quality of public services. The Latin America and the Caribbean (LAC) region is seeking to leverage the immense potential of AI to promote the digital transformation of the public sector. The OECD, in collaboration with CAF, Development Bank of Latin America, prepared this report to help national governments in the LAC region understand the current regional baseline of activities and capacities for AI in the public sector; to identify specific approaches and actions they can take to enhance their ability to use this emerging technology for efficient, effective and responsive governments; and to collaborate across borders in pursuit of a regional vision for AI in the public sector. This report incorporates a stocktaking of each country’s strategies and commitments around AI in the public sector, including their alignment with the OECD AI Principles. It also includes an analysis of efforts to build key governance capacities and put in place critical enablers for AI in the public sector. It concludes with a series of recommendations for governments in the LAC region.
  • 8-mars-2022

    Français

    Les effets de l’IA sur la vie professionnelle des femmes

    Le développement et l'utilisation de l'intelligence artificielle (IA) continuent d’élargir les possibilités de réalisation des 17 objectifs de développement durable (ODD) des Nations unies, notamment l’égalité des genres. En examinant de plus près l’intersection entre le genre et la technologie, cette collaboration entre l’UNESCO, la Banque interaméricaine de développement (BID) et l’Organisation de coopération et de développement économiques (OCDE) examine les effets de l'IA sur la vie professionnelle des femmes. Ce rapport rend compte de défis et des opportunités présentés par l’utilisation de technologies émergentes telles que l’IA dans une perspective de genre. Le rapport souligne la nécessité de se concentrer davantage et de mener des recherches sur les impacts de l’IA sur les femmes et sur le fossé numérique entre les sexes, afin de s'assurer que les femmes ne sont pas laissées pour compte dans l’avenir du travail.
  • 7-mars-2022

    Français

    Science, technologie et innovation: Tableau de bord de l'OCDE

    La nouvelle plateforme STI.Scoreboard offre la possibilité d’extraire, visualiser, comparer et partager plus de 1000 indicateurs statistiques des systèmes de science, technologie et innovation pour les pays de l'OCDE ainsi que plusieurs autres économies.

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  • 22-February-2022

    English

    OECD Framework for the Classification of AI systems

    As artificial intelligence (AI) integrates all sectors at a rapid pace, different AI systems bring different benefits and risks. In comparing virtual assistants, self-driving vehicles and video recommendations for children, it is easy to see that the benefits and risks of each are very different. Their specificities will require different approaches to policy making and governance. To help policy makers, regulators, legislators and others characterise AI systems deployed in specific contexts, the OECD has developed a user-friendly tool to evaluate AI systems from a policy perspective. It can be applied to the widest range of AI systems across the following dimensions: People & Planet; Economic Context; Data & Input; AI model; and Task & Output. Each of the framework's dimensions has a subset of properties and attributes to define and assess policy implications and to guide an innovative and trustworthy approach to AI as outlined in the OECD AI Principles.
  • 25-January-2022

    English

    OECD International Survey of Science

    The International Survey of Science (ISSA) collects information on the activities of authors of scientific publications through a global online survey. It aims to complement other available statistical evidence and indicators in order to provide insights on selected aspects of research and inform science policy.

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  • 14-January-2022

    English

    Labour-saving technologies and employment levels - Are robots really making workers redundant?

    This paper exploits natural language processing techniques to detect explicit labour-saving goals in inventive efforts in robotics and assess their relevance for different occupational profiles and the impact on employment levels. The analysis relies on patents published by the European Patent Office between 1978 and 2019 and firm-level data from ORBIS® IP. It investigates innovative actors engaged in labour-saving technologies and their economic environment (identity, location, industry), and identifies technological fields and associated occupations which are particularly exposed to them. Labour-saving patents are concentrated in Japan, the United States, and Italy, and seem to affect low-skilled and blue-collar jobs, along with highly cognitive and specialised professions. A preliminary analysis does not find an appreciable negative effect on employment shares in OECD countries over the past decade, but further research to econometrically investigate the relationship between labour-saving technological developments and employment would be helpful.
  • 23-December-2021

    English

    Interoperability of privacy and data protection frameworks

    The significant increase in flows of personal data has spurred policy makers to try to develop a coherent approach to privacy governance both domestically and across borders. In this context, the need for the interoperability of privacy and data protection frameworks ('privacy interoperability') has taken on greater importance. While there is broad agreement on the importance of privacy interoperability, how to achieve this in practice is less well understood. This Going Digital Toolkit note describes the issues around ensuring the interoperability of privacy and data protection frameworks, and it highlights promising initiatives by governments and privacy enforcement authorities at the national and international levels. This note seeks to contribute to a shared understanding of privacy interoperability in the context of the governance of privacy and data protection and transborder flows of personal data.
  • 21-December-2021

    English

    Improving effectiveness of Lithuania’s innovation policy

    This paper concludes the project 'Support to Improve Effectiveness of Lithuania’s Innovation Policy' which summarises the findings, policy options and recommended actions. It aimed at providing support to efforts of the Government of Lithuania to better deliver existing policies, and develop and implement appropriate new policies, instruments and institutions in selected areas of science, technology and innovation (STI) policy. The report takes stock of recent policy actions taken since the 'OECD Review of Innovation Policy: Lithuania 2016'. Drawing on international good practices it explores the scope for improvement in selected areas of STI policy: a) consolidation of innovation agencies and enhancing Lithuania’s STI Council, b) public procurement of innovation , c) mission-oriented innovation policies, and d) industry 4.0 and artificial intelligence. The project has been aligned with ongoing Lithuanian reform processes, some of which are reflected in the ‘New Generation Lithuania’ plan related to the EU’s Recovery and Resilience Facility.
  • 21-December-2021

    English

    Measuring the economic value of data

    As data have become a social and economic resource, including for value creation, decision-making, innovation and production, policy makers are facing a number of challenges. Among the most important issues – but also one that is particularly complex – is how to measure the economic value of data to provide a solid evidence base for policymaking. This Going Digital Toolkit note brings clarity about what is meant by the term 'data' in the context of efforts to conceptualise and measure the value of data from a statistical perspective. The note also highlights why estimating the value of data is increasingly important, identifies the conceptual and practical measurement challenges faced, and catalogues various innovative initiatives underway across countries in the context of the forthcoming revision of the System of National Accounts and beyond.
  • 20-December-2021

    English

    Mapping data portability initiatives, opportunities and challenges

    Data portability has become an essential tool for enhancing access to and sharing of data across digital services and platforms. This report explores to what extent data portability can empower users (natural and legal persons) to play a more active role in the re-use of their data across digital services and platforms. It also examines how data portability can help increase interoperability and data flows and thus enhance competition and innovation by reducing switching costs and lock-in effects.
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