By Date

  • 26-April-2023


    Subsidies to the steel industry - Insights from the OECD data collection

    This report analyses subsidies provided to steel producers by examining firm-level data from the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) and conducting desk research. It reveals that subsidy trends persist even in the face of existing overcapacity. Between 2008 and 2020, steel companies in partner economies obtained an average of 10.7 times more subsidies per crude steel production capacity unit than their counterparts in OECD countries. These subsidies took the form of cash grants, cash awards, and cost reimbursements. The report also finds that the national context significantly influences a jurisdiction's inclination to support its steel sector and the transparency of such subsidies. Some jurisdictions have prioritised the growth of their domestic steel industry by establishing firm goals for crude steel production, export, or concentration. Meanwhile, others have engaged in international collaboration to address global challenges related to the decarbonisation of the steel industry.
  • 20-April-2023


    Good practice principles for public communication responses to mis- and disinformation

    This document presents the principles of good practice for public communication responses to mis- and disinformation. The Principles aim to help governments counter mis- and disinformation via the public communication function and other policy responses through strengthening domestic and international media and information ecosystems and reinforcing democracy. This document identifies nine common principles underpinning good practices for how governments can engage with partners across citizens, civil society and the private sector, based on evidence and interventions observed around the world during the COVID-19 pandemic and beyond.
  • 20-April-2023


    Cost and uptake of income-based tax incentives for R&D and innovation

    Despite the increasing adoption of income-based tax incentives for R&D and innovation in the OECD area and beyond, evidence on the availability, design, generosity and actual cost of these incentives remains scarce. This report helps fill this gap by documenting government efforts to provide preferential tax treatment of economic outputs of innovation activities. Drawing on the responses of national contact points to the OECD KNOWINTAX surveys carried out in 2020 and 2021, it presents new evidence on the cost (foregone tax revenues) and uptake of income-based-tax incentives by businesses in 2019, and tracks their distribution by firm size and industry and their evolution over the 2000-2019 period.
  • 13-April-2023


    AI language models - Technological, socio-economic and policy considerations

    AI language models are a key component of natural language processing (NLP), a field of artificial intelligence (AI) focused on enabling computers to understand and generate human language. Language models and other NLP approaches involve developing algorithms and models that can process, analyse and generate natural language text or speech trained on vast amounts of data using techniques ranging from rule-based approaches to statistical models and deep learning. The application of language models is diverse and includes text completion, language translation, chatbots, virtual assistants and speech recognition. This report offers an overview of the AI language model and NLP landscape with current and emerging policy responses from around the world. It explores the basic building blocks of language models from a technical perspective using the OECD Framework for the Classification of AI Systems. The report also presents policy considerations through the lens of the OECD AI Principles.
  • 6-April-2023



    This page provides information on OECD work on scientometrics and bibliometrics. This field has has evolved over time from the study of indices for improving information retrieval from peer-reviewed scientific publications (commonly described as the “bibliometric” analysis of science) to cover other types of documents and information sources relating to science and technology.

    Related Documents
  • 22-March-2023


    Measuring Tax Support for R&D and Innovation

    Governments worldwide increasingly rely on tax incentives in addition to direct support measures (e.g. grants) to promote R&D in firms and encourage innovation and economic growth. The OECD has developed experimental methodologies and a detailed database on R&D tax incentives with the latest indicators on the cost and information on the design and scope of R&D tax incentives.

    Related Documents
  • 20-March-2023


    Competition, regulation and growth in a digitized world - Dealing with emerging competition issues in digital markets

    Digital markets have raised a number of new competition challenges. Ex-post competition policy appears not to be able to address them in their entirety and with the necessary speed. There is considerable consensus, among academics and policy-makers, that ex-ante regulatory policies are needed to avoid competition being stifled in these markets, with a negative impact on productivity and innovation. As a result, major OECD economies are discussing or have approved regulatory proposals with the aim to foster contestability and fair trade in digital markets.
  • 16-mars-2023


    La sécurisation croissante de la technologie menace la coopération en matière de réponse aux crises mondiales - OCDE

    Selon la nouvelle publication Science, technologie et innovation : Perspectives de l’OCDE 2023, les mesures prises récemment par la Chine, l’Union européenne et les États-Unis pour réduire les dépendances technologiques internationales pourraient entraîner un affaiblissement des activités dans les domaines de la science, de la technologie et de l’innovation.

    Documents connexes
  • 10-March-2023


    Collaborative mechanisms for sustainable health innovation - The case of vaccines and antibiotics

    The provision of key health technologies and products such as vaccines and antibiotics is insufficient in purely competitive and volume-based markets, requiring new revenue streams for sustainability. Recent developments in health innovation suggest that innovative collaborative mechanisms can be effective in addressing this issue. In the domains of vaccines and antibiotics, these approaches should incorporate shared research investment, long-term access planning, the provision of manufacturing infrastructure, supply chains, and financial returns. Collaborative approaches such as subscription models could be piloted at the regional level, while other models could be developed to delink innovation, manufacturing, and access from sales volume and revenue. Finally, blended finance instruments from the development field could encourage greater collaboration among established and emerging stakeholders in health innovation. These stakeholders should work together to create, test, access, and implement more collaborative approaches to health innovation to share upfront investments, mitigate risks of failure, and accelerate market access.
  • 8-March-2023


    Emerging privacy-enhancing technologies - Current regulatory and policy approaches

    This report examines privacy-enhancing technologies (PETs), which are digital solutions that allow information to be collected, processed, analysed, and shared while protecting data confidentiality and privacy. The report reviews recent technological advancements and evaluates the effectiveness of different types of PETs, as well as the challenges and opportunities they present. It also outlines current regulatory and policy approaches to PETs to help privacy enforcement authorities and policy makers better understand how they can be used to enhance privacy and data protection, and to improve overall data governance.
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