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  • 22-September-2021

    English

    The human capital behind AI - Jobs and skills demand from online job postings

    Building on recent OECD work, this paper analyses the skills sets ('skills bundles') demanded in artificial intelligence (AI)-related online job postings. The analysis uses Burning Glass Technologies’ data for the United States and the United Kingdom and finds that skills related to the open source programming software Python and to machine learning represent 'must-haves' for working with AI. Employers additionally value specialised skills related to robotics, AI development and applying AI. A comparison of the periods 2013-15 and 2017-19 shows that the latter two have become more interrelated over time, with 'neural network' skills connecting both groups. Network analysis relating AI skills to general skills highlights the growing role of socio-emotional skills; and of skill bundles related to programming, management of big data and data analysis. Key results hold for both countries and time periods, though differences emerge across occupations and industries.
  • 14-September-2021

    English

    Bridging connectivity divides

    Reliable and high-quality connectivity is fundamental for the digital transformation. Now more than ever, access to high-quality broadband services at affordable prices is essential to ensure that economic and social activities can continue in an increasingly remote manner. However, important disparities in terms of connectivity persist, aggravating the consequences of digital divides. As such, expanding connectivity to achieve an inclusive society is at the heart of policy agendas in OECD countries. However, more concretely, what are the innovative policies and regulatory measures that have proven to work best to ensure connectivity for all? This Going Digital Toolkit note provides a 'roadmap' to policymakers by identifying policies and regulation to effectively reduce connectivity divides. Such policies include promoting competition, fostering investment, and removing barriers to broadband deployment, as well as a set of tailored approaches that are particularly relevant to extending connectivity in rural and remote areas. The Annex of this note provides examples of related policy and regulatory approaches implemented by different OECD countries.
  • 4-August-2021

    English

    SMEs Going Digital - Policy challenges and recommendations

    Despite potential benefits, small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) lag behind larger firms in their adoption of digital technologies. Moreover, digital adoption by SMEs is to a large extent still confined to basic services, and adoption gaps increase as technologies become more sophisticated. The COVID-19 crisis has accelerated SME digitalisation, but barriers to adoption persist. The stakes are high, not only because SMEs make up most of the business and industrial fabric in most countries and regions, but also because they are strategic actors in large firms’ supply chains and play a key role in building inclusive and resilient societies. This Going Digital Toolkit note identifies the challenges that governments face in enabling SMEs to benefit from digital transformation and outlines key policy recommendations, including: 1) encouraging digital uptake by SMEs, 2) supporting SME training and upskilling, 3) strengthening management skills in SMEs, and 4) leveraging financial technology (Fintech) and alternative sources of finance for SMEs.
  • 3-August-2021

    English

    An overview of national AI strategies and policies

    As artificial intelligence (AI) advances across economies and societies, policy makers and AI actors around the world seek to move from principles to practice. To harness the benefits of AI while mitigating the risks, governments are investing in AI R&D; leveraging AI in specific industries such as transportation and healthcare; building human capacity on AI; ensuring a fair labour market transformation; reviewing and adapting relevant policy and regulatory frameworks and developing standards; and co-operating internationally. This Going Digital Toolkit note provides an overview of the various AI policy initiatives undertaken by governments and analyses these initiatives throughout the AI policy cycle: 1) policy design; 2) policy implementation; 3) policy intelligence; and 4) approaches for international and multi-stakeholder co-operation on AI policy.
  • 30-July-2021

    English

    Value chains in public marine data - A UK case study

    Marine data play a crucial role for many scientific disciplines, as well as for very diverse operational services such as fisheries management, environmental planning, marine conservation, weather forecasting, or port management. The information derived from marine data is also increasingly finding its way into a wide and varied range of public policy arenas and private industries. Collecting, distributing and archiving public marine data provide benefits to society at large, however as with all public investments, assessments are needed to provide evidence to decision makers. Based on an original survey of UK marine data users, this paper explores pathways through which marine data are used and transformed into actionable information, creating systematised value chains for the first time. The analysis unveils trends in current marine data uses in the UK and key benefits of data uses. The paper lays the foundations for further OECD work with the marine data community.
  • 29-July-2021

    English

    Corporate effective tax rates for R&D - The case of expenditure-based R&D tax incentives

    R&D tax incentives have become a widely used policy tool to promote business R&D. How do they shape firms’ incentives to invest in R&D? This paper contributes a methodology to construct forward-looking effective tax rates for an R&D investment that reflect the value of expenditure-based R&D tax incentives. The new OECD estimates cover 48 countries and consider the case of large profitable firms, accounting for the bulk of R&D in most economies. The results provide new insights into the generosity of R&D tax incentives from the perspective of firms that decide on whether or where to invest in R&D (extensive margin) and the level (intensive margin) of R&D investment. The generosity of the favourable tax treatment of R&D is shown to vary at the intensive and extensive margins, highlighting differences in countries’ strategies to support R&D through the tax system.
  • 29-July-2021

    English

    Making life richer, easier and healthier - Robots, their future and the roles for public policy

    This paper addresses the current and emerging uses and impacts of robots, the mid-term future of robotics and the role of policy. Progress in robotics will help to make life easier, richer and healthier. Wider robot use will help raise labour productivity. As science and engineering progress, robots will become more central to crisis response, from helping combat infectious diseases to maintaining critical infrastructure. Governments can accelerate and orient the development and uptake of socially valuable robots, for instance by: supporting cross-disciplinary R&D, facilitating research commercialisation, helping small and medium-size enterprises (SMEs) understand the opportunities for investment in robots, supporting platforms that highlight robot solutions in healthcare and other sectors, embedding robotics engineering in high school curricula, tailoring training for workers with vocational-level mechanical skills, supporting data development useful to robotics, ensuring flexible regulation conducive to innovation, strengthening digital connectivity, and raising awareness of the importance of robotics.
  • 22-July-2021

    English

    Open Science

    The OECD is working with member and non-member economies to review policies to promote open science and to assess their impact on research and innovation.

    Related Documents
  • 20-July-2021

    English

    Bridging connectivity divides

    As countries weather the COVID-19 health emergency, high-quality connectivity, more than ever, is essential to ensure that economic activities can continue in a remote manner. However, important disparities in terms of connectivity persist, aggravating the consequences of the health emergency. Therefore, policies aiming to reduce connectivity divides are of paramount importance. This report explores policies and regulations in OECD countries that have proven successful to work towards closing connectivity divides. It offers a roadmap to policy makers on the overarching policies and regulatory measures to expand connectivity, as well as the tailored approaches to extend broadband networks in rural and remote areas.
  • 20-July-2021

    English

    Space technology transfers and their commercialisation

    This paper examines space technology transfers and their commercialisation, focussing on transfers from publicly funded space programmes to different sectors of the economy. It notably compares practices from Europe, North America and Asia for the first time. It identifies the conditions for enabling successful space technology transfers, as well as the most common channels for commercialisation. The paper also reviews methodological issues in measuring and assessing the benefits of transfers, and provides recommendations to develop improved and internationally comparable evidence. The analysis benefits from original content and endorsement from some of the most active space agencies in OECD countries and beyond.
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