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  • 22-November-2021

    English

    Education Policy Outlook 2021 - Shaping Responsive and Resilient Education in a Changing World

    Education systems operate in a world that is constantly evolving towards new equilibria, yet short-term crises may disrupt, accelerate or divert longer-term evolutions. This Framework for Responsiveness and Resilience in Education Policy aims to support policy makers to balance the urgent challenge of building eco-systems that adapt in the face of disruption and change (resilience), and the important challenge of navigating the ongoing evolution from industrial to post-industrial societies and economies (responsiveness). Building on international evidence and analysis from over 40 education systems, this framework endeavours to establish tangible, transferable and actionable definitions of resilience. These definitions, which are the goals of the framework (Why?), are underpinned by policy components of responsiveness (What?), which define priority areas for education policy makers. Policy pointers for resilience (How?) then illustrate how policy makers can apply these components in ways that promote resilience at the learner, broader learning environment and system levels of the policy ecosystem. Finally, a transversal component looks into the people and the processes undertaken in order to reach a given purpose (Who?). The report has been prepared with evidence from the Education Policy Outlook series – the OECD’s analytical observatory of education policy.
  • 3-November-2021

    English

    Understanding the tokenisation of assets in financial markets

    Asset tokenisation can generally be described as the digital representation of physical assets on distributed ledgers (also referred to as digital twins) or the issuance of native tokens on the blockchain. Although initially associated with mostly non-compliant initial coin offerings over the period 2017-18, currently tokenisation represents one of the most prominent cases of distributed ledger technologies in financial markets. This Going Digital Toolkit note identifies the different approaches that policy makers have adopted around tokenised assets and the markets for such instruments, and provides examples of these approaches. These approaches are not mutually exclusive and policy makers may differ in the way they address asset tokenisation, participants of tokenised markets, and risks arising in these markets. This Toolkit note does not classify approaches into categories, but rather describes elements and characteristics of different jurisdictional approaches to asset tokenisation, some of which can co-exist.
  • 28-October-2021

    English

    Measuring digital trade

    Digital transformation has become a prevalent part of our lives, changing theway we consume, produce and trade, and this trend has only accelerated sincethe COVID-19 crisis. Still, digital transformation remains largely hidden in officialtrade statistics. From a statistical perspective, a fundamental rethink is requiredin the way that core national accounts are constructed if meaningful measuresof digital trade are to be developed. This Going Digital Toolkit note highlights themain features of the OECD-IMF-WTO conceptual framework defining digitaltrade, as well as practical guidance to overcome some of the measurementchallenges. It also catalogues various country initiatives to estimate digital trade.
  • 18-October-2021

    English

    Productivity-wage nexus at the firm-level in Portugal - Decoupling and divergences

    There is a growing international concern about the slowdown in productivity growth, especially as labor productivity enhancements are important drivers of higher generalised living standards. Using administrative data of firms in Portugal between 2010 and 2016, we analyse the relationships between productivity and wages. At odds with neoclassical theory of marginal productivity of labor, we find that two thirds of firms insufficiently raised wages given observed productivity growth. Employing unconditional quantile regressions, we investigate some quantifiable determinants of the productivity-wage gap at different parts of the distributions. Most of the documented dynamics contributed not only to the divergence of productivity and wages but also to the decoupling of productivity and wage growth. We argue that labor market flexibilisation intensified segmentation, providing incentives for non standard contracts. Both dimensions, as well as higher board compensations, international trade and on-the-job training weakened the link between productivity and wages.
  • 13-October-2021

    English

    Enhancing the digital security of critical activities

    The digital transformation of critical activities such as the delivery of water, energy, healthcare, telecommunications, and banking services increasingly exposes them to cybersecurity threats, which can affect the health, safety, and security of citizens, the functioning of essential services, or economic and social prosperity more broadly. This Going Digital Toolkit note introduces key concepts, such as critical activities, critical information infrastructure (CII), cybersecurity and digital security risk management, and helps policymakers identify what needs to be protected and what types of measures operators of critical activities should take. It further discusses the institutional framework to develop and supervise policies to enhance the digital security of critical activities, including trust-based partnerships, and provides a selection of policy approaches from a range of jurisdictions in the Annex.
  • 4-octobre-2021

    Français

    Appliquer les Principes de l’OCDE sur l’IA : progrès et perspectives

    Visionnez le replay d'une discussion à haut niveau sur la mise en œuvre des Principes de l'OCDE sur l'intelligence artificielle dans les politiques et la pratique. Cet événement a été diffusé en direct le 4 octobre 2021 dans le cadre de la réunion du Conseil de l’OCDE au niveau des Ministres.

  • 30-September-2021

    English

    Venture capital investments in artificial intelligence - Analysing trends in VC in AI companies from 2012 through 2020

    New analysis of global investments by venture capitalists (VC) in private companies focused on artificial intelligence (AI) found VC investments in AI to be growing at a dramatic pace. The United States and the People’s Republic of China are leading this wave of investments that tend to concentrate on a few key industries. The data showed that the European Union, United Kingdom and Japan increased investments, but lag behind the two dominant players. The study analysed venture capital investments in 8 300 AI firms worldwide, covering 20 549 transactions between 2012 and 2020, based on data provided by Preqin, a private capital-markets analysis firm in London. The data did not capture every deal and required some extrapolation, yet the timeliness of the findings provides a valuable source of information as national governments, international organisations, public and private sectors develop policies and strategies to capture the benefits of AI for all.
  • 24-September-2021

    English

    Broadband policy and technology developments

    The promotion of widespread, affordable, and high-quality broadband is a prerequisite for the digital transformation of economies and societies. Foreseeing the role of broadband as an accelerator of economic, social and cultural development, the OECD adopted the Council Recommendation on Broadband Development in 2004. Since then, important developments have taken place in broadband technologies and markets. As part of the review of the 2004 Recommendation undertaken from 2018 to 2020 and resulting in the adoption of the revised 2021 OECD Council Recommendation on Broadband Connectivity, this report examines the evolution of broadband technologies, policies and regulation to foster broadband developments since 2004 as well as the benefits of, and challenges to, accelerating these developments to further enable digital transformation and inclusive growth.
  • 24-September-2021

    English

    Emerging trends in communication market competition

    Communication market structures and their effect on delivering efficient and inclusive connectivity is of key interest to policy makers and regulators. This report discusses emerging competition trends in OECD broadband markets that are shaping market structures, covering both fixed and mobile networks. The increasing complementarity of fixed and wireless networks and the convergence of previously separate markets have led to new forms of communication market competition. While convergence has been acting as a driver for market consolidation, there is also increased scrutiny in merger review. Some OECD countries are discussing options to keep mobile communication markets open to new entrants in the context of merger reviews, while others have experienced a recent wave of entry. The report explores the role of horizontal and vertical mergers in communication markets, presents examples of entry in mobile communication markets, and discusses some of effects of entry and consolidation in OECD markets.
  • 24-September-2021

    English

    Implementation and usage of the OECD Recommendation on Broadband Development

    Without connectivity, there can be no digital transformation of economies and societies. With this in mind, the OECD Recommendation of the Council on Broadband Development was adopted in 2004. Since then, broadband markets, underlying technologies, and the policies in place to spur the development of broadband networks have undergone significant changes. This document summarises the outcome of an extensive questionnaire sent to delegates of OECD countries and stakeholder groups. The questionnaire aimed to gather information on the experience of OECD countries concerning broadband development in general, and more particularly their experience in implementing the 2004 Recommendation. The responses to the questionnaire were used to inform the review and revision of the 2004 Recommendation, which resulted in the adoption of the 2021 OECD Council Recommendation on Broadband Connectivity.
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