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  • 20-December-2021

    English

    Promoting high-quality broadband networks in G20 countries

    Connectivity is an essential pillar of ensuring an inclusive digital transformation. The COVID-19 health emergency has further accentuated the awareness of how the quality, capability and resilience of broadband networks are becoming even more critical to ensure an inclusive society as more and more activities, such as work and education, are conducted in a remote manner. Therefore, policies aiming to expand connectivity and increase its quality are of paramount importance. Furthermore, analysing the performance of networks is crucial to inform policy makers and regulators to identify quality gaps and design the right policies and regulation towards closing those gaps. This report focuses on the state of broadband speed quality across the G20 and how to upgrade the speeds of networks further to spur economic recovery. It identifies existing gaps and puts forward policies and regulation towards extending high-quality networks and upgrading the quality of networks.
  • 20-December-2021

    English

    Firms going digital - Tapping into the potential of data for innovation

    This paper aims to help policy makers understand and improve the conditions for firms to thrive in an increasingly digital economy where data has become an important resource for innovation. The paper: 1) analyses trends in the adoption of information and communication technologies and activities that enable firms to collect, store and use data, including big data analysis (BDA); 2) provides new evidence from micro-econometric analysis of firms’ BDA and innovation in products, processes, marketing and organisation, considering different types of data used for BDA; 3) examines business models of firms that successfully innovate with data; and 4) discusses policies that can help improve the conditions for all firms to go digital and tap into the potential of data for innovation.
  • 17-December-2021

    English

    Scientometrics

    This page provides information on OECD work on scientometrics and bibliometrics. This field has has evolved over time from the study of indices for improving information retrieval from peer-reviewed scientific publications (commonly described as the “bibliometric” analysis of science) to cover other types of documents and information sources relating to science and technology.

    Related Documents
  • 16-December-2021

    English

    Will it stay or will it go? Analysing developments in telework during COVID-19 using online job postings data

    The COVID-19 crisis has triggered a major shift towards telework and virtual interactions. This paper uses information on job postings from the online job site Indeed to analyse developments in the adoption of telework across 20 countries. It finds, first, that the incidence of advertised telework almost tripled during the pandemic, albeit with large differences both across sectors and across countries. Second, cross-country differences are to a notable extent explained by differences in the extent to which governments restricted mobility during the pandemic. However, while the tightening of restrictions substantially raises advertised telework, their easing only modestly reverses the increase. Third, digital preparedness plays an important role in mediating the response of advertised telework to changes in restrictions. The tightening of restrictions has particularly large effects in sectors that are better prepared to adopt digital business models, while their easing has almost no effect in countries with high-quality digital infrastructure. Overall, these results suggest that telework is here to stay, especially in countries with high levels of digital preparedness. Public policies will need to adapt to reap the potential benefits for productivity and worker well-being.
  • 16-December-2021

    English

    The role of telework for productivity during and post-COVID-19 - Results from an OECD survey among managers and workers

    Motivated by the sudden adoption of telework in the wake of the COVID 19 pandemic, the Global Forum on Productivity (GFP) undertook an online survey among managers and workers in 25 countries about their experience and expectations, with a particular focus on productivity and well-being. This paper presents analysis and results from this endeavour. It finds that managers and workers had an overall positive assessment from teleworking both for firm performance and for individual well-being, and wish to increase substantially the share of regular teleworkers from pre-crisis levels. Respondents, on average, find that the ideal amount of telework is around 2-3 days per week, in line with other recent evidence and with the idea that the benefits (e.g., less commuting, fewer distractions) and costs (e.g., impaired communication and knowledge flows) need to be balanced at an intermediate level of telework intensity. To meet the challenges of this 'hybrid' working mode, as the survey finds, further changes from management are needed, such as the co-ordination of schedules to encourage a sufficient degree of in-person interaction, and further investment in ICT tools and skills as well as more soft skills to master online communication.
  • 16-December-2021

    English

    Improving knowledge transfer and collaboration between science and business in Spain

    This study provides an in-depth assessment of Spain’s innovation system and the current state of knowledge transfer and collaboration. It identifies five priority areas for reform and long-term investment that should provide the basis of a new Roadmap. These include granting greater operational autonomy to universities and public research organisations in return for accountability on outcomes, putting in place a better integrated system of incentives that takes both individuals and organisations into account, and ensuring sustained investment in core capabilities to connect science and business. To put these reforms in motion and sustain them over time, a new type of covenant between science and society is needed in Spain today. This should be based on a ‘new deal’ between actors in the science and innovation system and society at large, committing to place the pursuit of concrete social benefits in return for more stable and predictable support.
  • 13-December-2021

    English

    Opportunities and drawbacks of using artificial intelligence for training

    Technological developments are one of the major forces behind the need for retraining, but they can also be part of the solution. In particular, Artificial Intelligence (AI) has the potential to increase training participation, including among currently underrepresented groups, by lowering some of the barriers to training that people experience and by increasing motivation to train. Moreover, certain AI solutions for training may improve the alignment of training to labour market needs, and reduce bias and discrimination in the workplace. In order to realise the benefits of AI for training and ensure that it yields benefits for all, it will be necessary to address potential drawbacks in terms of changing skills requirements, inequalities in access to data, technology and infrastructure and important ethical issues. Finally, even when these drawbacks can be addressed, the introduction and expansion of AI tools for training is constrained by the supply of AI skills in the workforce and the availability of scientific evidence regarding the benefits of AI tools for training and whether they are cost-effective.
  • 10-December-2021

    English

    OECD Reviews of Innovation Policy: Kuwait 2021

    The slowdown in market demand for oil is putting increasing pressure on Kuwait's current economic and social model. This model is based on the distribution of petroleum export proceeds to Kuwaiti citizens, with relatively limited long-term investment in knowledge production and the upgrading of the national innovation capacity. The transition towards a knowledge-based society – where value creation, the resolution of societal challenges and the well-being of society at large will be based on the production, diffusion and implementation of knowledge – is becoming an imperative. This is recognised within the national development strategy which formulates the objective of attaining 'Smart Kuwait' by 2035. Such a transition is challenging and can only be achieved through the build-up of appropriate governance of the STI system with adequate institutions such as a Ministry and a professional agency with a mandate for research and innovation. This set-up should help raise awareness and reduce barriers to innovation, reinforce the scientific research base, develop the support for business innovation, foster knowledge diffusion and co‑creation between science and industry, build up the human capital needed, and establish the role of science, technology and innovation in tackling Kuwait's societal challenges.
  • 6-December-2021

    English

    The human side of productivity - Uncovering the role of skills and diversity for firm productivity

    Relying on linked employer-employee datasets from 10 countries, this paper documents that the skills and the diversity of the workforce and of managers – the human side of businesses – account on average for about one third of the labour productivity gap between firms at the productivity 'frontier' (the top 10% within each detailed industry) and medium performers at the 40-60 percentile of the productivity distribution. The composition of skills, especially the share of high skills, varies the most along the productivity distribution, but low and medium skilled employees make up a substantial share of the workforce even at the frontier. High skills show positive but decreasing productivity returns. Moreover, the skill mix of top firms varies markedly across countries, pointing to the role of different strategies pursued by firms in different policy environments. We also find that managerial skills play a particularly important role, also through complementarities with worker skills. Gender and cultural diversity among managers – and to a lesser extent, among workers – is positively related to firm productivity as well. We discuss public policies that can facilitate the catch-up of firms below the frontier through skills and diversity. These cover a wide range of areas, exerting their influence through three main channels: the supply, upgrading and the matching across firms (the SUM) of skills and other human factors.
  • 2-décembre-2021

    Français

    Approches actuelles des 50 principaux services mondiaux de partage de contenus en ligne face aux contenus terroristes et extrémistes violents

    Ce rapport dresse un état des lieux des règles et des procédures mises en œuvre par les 50 principaux services mondiaux de partage de contenus en ligne pour lutter contre les contenus terroristes et extrémistes violents, l’accent étant mis sur la transparence. Il en ressort que seuls cinq des 50 services étudiés publient des rapports de transparence dédiés à ce type de contenus, et qu’ils suivent ce faisant des approches diverses. Ils se fondent sur des définitions différentes du terrorisme et de l’extrémisme violent, ne signalent pas les mêmes types d’informations, s’appuient sur des mesures et des méthodes d’estimation disparates et publient leurs rapports à des fréquences et selon des calendriers distincts. Compte tenu du nombre peu élevé d’entreprises publiant des rapports et de l’hétérogénéité de la teneur, des calendriers et des modalités y afférents, il est impossible d’avoir une vision intersectorielle claire et exhaustive de l’efficacité des mesures prises par les entreprises pour lutter contre les contenus terroristes et extrémistes violents diffusés en ligne, ou des conséquences que ces mesures pourraient avoir sur le respect des droits humains. Cette situation pourrait s’améliorer si les entreprises étaient plus nombreuses à publier des rapports de transparence et y faisaient figurer des informations plus aisément comparables.
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