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Reports


  • 19-May-2021

    English

    The Impact of Regulation on International Investment in Finland

    The Impact of Regulations on International Investment in Finland examines what drives FDI into Finland and which domestic regulatory aspects may discourage foreign investment. The report analyses trends in FDI flows towards Finland and other Nordic-Baltic countries and discusses the benefits of foreign investment for the Finnish economy. It provides a comparative overview of the regulatory frameworks in force in Finland and its Nordic-Baltic peers, outlining both economy-wide and sector-specific findings, and explores how changes in these regulatory frameworks are linked to changes in FDI inflows in the region. Foreign investors’ views on Finland’s business environment complement these findings. The report underlines potential areas for reform and suggests policy actions that could further improve Finland’s investment climate and contribute to attracting and retaining more FDI, while also strengthening its positive impact.
  • 28-April-2021

    English

    The Economic Benefits of Air Quality Improvements in Arctic Council Countries

    The Arctic is a vital region that helps preserve the balance of the global climate. The Arctic environment is particularly sensitive to short-lived climate pollutants, including black carbon, due to their strong warming effect. With ambitious policy action to reduce air pollutants, Arctic Council countries would obtain a positive effect on health and the environment throughout their territory, while also helping to slow down climate change by reducing emissions of black carbon. This report calls for ambitious policy action to reduce air pollution in Arctic Council countries, highlighting the environmental, health, and economic benefits from policy action.
  • 8-April-2021

    English

    Mission-oriented innovation policy in Norway - Challenges, opportunities and future options

    This report assesses the potential for mission-oriented innovation policies (MOIPs) to contribute to the sustainable transition in Norway, and examines the challenges and opportunities that MOIPs would present. As part of a series of MOIP national case studies, the report finds that MOIPs could contribute significantly to alleviating some of the long-standing limitations of Norway’s innovation system, acknowledging the country’s strong advantages for mission-orientation and its innovative policy experimentations, such as the Pilot-E scheme and the CLIMIT programme. It proposes two options for Norway’s future MOIP approach, with corresponding recommendations. Under a ‘scaling-up’ option, Norway would develop a system to manage the implementation of cross-agency schemes in relevant challenge areas. A ‘levelling-up’ option would involve the programming of a pilot mission in the four-year investment plan of the next edition of Norway’s Long Term Plan, with support from high-level policy and political actors.
  • 2-March-2021

    English

    Policies for the Future of Farming and Food in Norway

    Norway is performing unevenly across its four agricultural policy objectives. While Norway enjoys a high level of food security and is meeting its aim of maintaining agricultural production across the country, both environmental performance and the efficient creation of value added along the food chain are compromised by support policies linked to production levels. Support to producers relative to gross farm receipts is the highest among OECD countries, with 59% of farmers’ revenues coming from government support. Only 3% of total support to agriculture is dedicated to research and innovation. Moreover, while Norway has strong public research institutions and well-designed tax deductions, the private sector lacks the right policy incentives to innovate. This review proposes a new policy approach, centred around innovations that would enable Norway to achieve its objectives and improve the productivity, sustainability and resilience of its agro-food sector. Specific recommendations include increasing the responsiveness of the sector to markets, giving farmers greater flexibility in making production decisions, placing greater emphasis on agri-environmental outcomes, and increasing the role of the private sector in research and innovation.
  • 13-January-2021

    English

    Job mobility, reallocation and wage growth - A tale of two countries

    This paper analyses the role of job mobility for job reallocation and aggregate wage growth in Norway and the United States using linked employer-employee data. It provides four main findings. First, despite lower overall job mobility in Norway, the speed of worker reallocation from low-wage to high-wage firms is similar to that in the United States. Second, job reallocation tends to be counter-cyclical in Norway, but pro-cyclical in the United States, due to the weaker tendency of high-wage firms in the United States to hoard workers during economic downturns. Third, the reallocation of workers from low to high wage firms through job-to-job mobility disproportionately benefits high-skilled workers in Norway and low-skilled workers in the United States. Fourth, the slowdown in aggregate wage growth primarily reflects a weakening of on-the-job wage growth in both countries rather than a reduced role of job reallocation between low and high-wage firms (although this does also play a role in the United States).
  • 7-December-2020

    English

    Education Policy Outlook in Norway

    This country policy profile on education in Norway is part of the Education Policy Outlook series. Building on the first policy profile for Norway (2013), it offers a concise analysis of where the education system stands today in terms of strengths, challenges and ongoing policy efforts, and how this compares to other systems. The profile brings together over a decade’s worth of policy analysis by the Education Policy Outlook, as well as the latest OECD data, relevant thematic and country-specific work and other international and national evidence. It also offers analysis of the Norwegian education system’s initial responses to the COVID-19 crisis and provides insight into approaches to building greater responsiveness and resilience for the future.
  • 3-December-2020

    English, PDF, 369kb

    Revenue Statistics: Key findings for Norway

    The OECD’s annual Revenue Statistics report found that the tax-to-GDP ratio in Norway increased by 0.4 percentage points from 39.6% in 2018 to 39.9% in 2019. Between 2018 and 2019 the OECD average decreased from 33.9% to 33.8%.

  • 30-November-2020

    English

    Building a High-Quality Early Childhood Education and Care Workforce - Further Results from the Starting Strong Survey 2018

    The work of early childhood education and care (ECEC) professionals is the major driver of the quality of an ECEC system. As evidence accumulates on the strong benefits of investing in early education, countries need effective policies to attract, maintain and retain a highly skilled workforce in the sector. This report looks at the makeup of the early childhood education and care workforce across countries, assessing how initial preparation programmes compare across different systems, what types of in-service training and informal learning activities help staff to upgrade their skills, and what staff say about their working conditions, as well as identifying policies that can reduce staff stress levels and increase well-being at work. The report also looks at which leadership and managerial practices in ECEC centres contribute to improving the skills, working conditions and working methods of staff. The OECD Starting Strong Teaching and Learning International Survey (TALIS Starting Strong) is the first international survey that focuses on the early childhood education and care workforce. It offers an opportunity to learn about the characteristics of ECEC staff and centre leaders, their practices at work, and their views on the profession and the sector. This second volume of findings, Building a High-Quality Early Childhood Education and Care Workforce, examines factors that influence the skills development of ECEC professionals, their working conditions and well-being at work, and leadership in ECEC centres.
  • 16-November-2020

    English

    A territorial approach to the Sustainable Development Goals in Viken, Norway

    Viken, Norway, was officially formed as a new county on 1 January 2020, merging the previous counties of Akershus, Buskerud and Østfold. The newly elected county government has endorsed the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) as a holistic framework for implementing the Regional Planning Strategy for a Sustainable Viken 2020‑2024, within a complex governance landscape and the concept of planetary boundaries. Viken’s sustainable development challenges and opportunities vary across its 51 municipalities, and between highly urbanised and largely rural areas. A Territorial Approach to the SDGs will help maximise the assets and strengths of all territories of the county and promote better access to economic development opportunities, labour market, skills and education across the county where disparities are witnessed between rural areas and urban centres.
  • 27-October-2020

    English

    Improving school quality in Norway 2020 - Progress with the Competence Development Model

    In 2017, the Government of Norway introduced a new competence development model for schools, to provide municipalities and schools with greater freedom of action and empower them to carry out systematic school improvement. This model has the potential to promote collective teacher professionalism, but requires a carefully thought out implementation strategy to yield positive results. From 2018, the OECD partnered with Norway to support this implementation process, and undertook an initial assessment of the implementation strategy of the model (Improving School Quality in Norway: The New Competence Development Model, 2019). In the meantime, the Norwegian Directorate for Education and Training has kept on co-shaping the model with universities and education stakeholders at the regional and local level. This new report assesses progress made, and makes further recommendations to move forward with the model development. The report will be valuable not only for Norway, but also to the many countries that are looking to promote school-based professional development and bridge the gap between policy design and effective implementation.
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