Health at a Glance 2023



Health at a Glance 2023

OECD Indicators

Health at a Glance provides a comprehensive set of indicators on population health and health system performance across OECD members and key emerging economies. These cover health status, risk factors for health, access to and quality of healthcare, and health system resources. Analysis draws from the latest comparable official national statistics and other sources. Alongside indicator-by-indicator analysis, an overview chapter summarises the comparative performance of countries and major trends. This edition also has a special focus on digital health, which measures the digital readiness of OECD countries’ health systems, and outlines what countries need to do accelerate the digital health transformation.

Published on November 07, 2023 Latest available edition in: French, German, Korean, Spanish

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Reader’s guide
Executive summary
Key facts and figures (infographic)
Indicator overview: Country dashboards and major trends
Digital health at a glance
Health status11 chapters available
Life expectancy at birth
Trends in all-cause mortality
Main causes of mortality
Avoidable mortality (preventable and treatable)
Major public health threats
Mortality from circulatory diseases
Cancer mortality
Chronic conditions
Maternal and infant mortality
Mental health
Self-rated health
Risk factors for health6 chapters available
Alcohol consumption
Illicit drug use
Diet and physical activity
Overweight and obesity
Environment and health
Access: Affordability, availability and use of services12 chapters available
Population coverage for healthcare
Unmet needs for healthcare
Extent of healthcare coverage
Financial hardship and out-of-pocket expenditure
Consultations with doctors
Digital health
Hospital beds and occupancy
Hospital activity
Diagnostic technologies
Hip and knee replacement
Ambulatory surgery
Waiting times for elective surgery
Quality and outcomes of care13 chapters available
Routine vaccinations
Cancer screening
Safe prescribing in primary care
Avoidable hospital admissions
Diabetes care
People‑centredness of ambulatory care
Safe acute care – workplace culture and patient experiences
Safe acute care – surgical complications and obstetric trauma
Mortality following acute myocardial infarction (AMI)
Mortality following ischaemic stroke
Patient-reported outcomes in acute care
Care for people with mental health disorders
Integrated care
Health expenditure9 chapters available
Health expenditure in relation to GDP
Health expenditure per capita
Prices in the health sector
Health expenditure by financing scheme
Public funding of health spending
Health expenditure by type of service
Health expenditure on primary healthcare
Health expenditure by provider
Capital expenditure in the health sector
Health workforce11 chapters available
Health and social care workforce
Doctors (overall number)
Doctors (by age, sex and category)
Geographic distribution of doctors
Remuneration of doctors
Remuneration of nurses
Hospital workers
Medical graduates
Nursing graduates
International migration of doctors and nurses
Pharmaceutical sector5 chapters available
Pharmaceutical expenditure
Pharmacists and pharmacies
Pharmaceutical consumption
Generics and biosimilars
Pharmaceutical research and development
Ageing and long-term care11 chapters available
Demographic trends
Life expectancy and healthy life expectancy at age 65
Self-rated health and disability at age 65 and over
Safe long-term care
Access to long-term care
Informal carers
Long-term care workers
Long-term care settings
Long-term care spending and unit costs
End-of-life care
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Digitalisation of health systems can significantly improve performance and outcomes

Health systems in the OECD are under renewed financial pressure, owing to competing priorities for public funding, according to a new OECD report. The 2023 edition of OECD Health at a Glance estimates that healthcare spending in OECD countries corresponded to 9.2% of GDP in 2022, down from 9.7% in 2021. While this exceeds the 2019 levels, in 11 OECD countries, health spending as a share of GDP in 2022 was lower than in 2019.


Indicators by theme

Digital health

Digital Health

Digital health has enormous potential to transform health systems. However, many countries are struggling to maximise the value from digital health because technologies and the data environment are often outdated and fragmented.


Health status

Life expectancy, mortality and well-being

Core population health indicators show that societies have not yet fully recovered from the pandemic, with many people still struggling mentally and physically.


Risk Factors

Smoking, alcohol, obesity and air pollution

Unhealthy lifestyles and poor environments cause millions of people to die prematurely. Smoking, harmful alcohol use, physical inactivity and obesity are the root cause of many chronic conditions.



Affordability, availability and use

Despite universal health coverage in most OECD countries, barriers to access remain, with gaps in financial protection and sometimes long waiting lists.


Quality of care

Quality and outcomes of care

Quality of care is improving in terms of safety and effectiveness, and more attention is being placed on patient-reported outcomes and experiences.



Health spending

Spending on health fell to 9.2% of GDP in 2022, down from 9.7% in 2021. On average this is above the share of GDP in 2019. However, in 11 countries, health spending as a share of GDP in 2022 was lower than in 2019.



Health workforce

The health and social care workforce continues to grow, but concerns about shortages are becoming more acute.



Pharmaceutical sector

Pharmaceuticals account for around one-sixth of health spending on average. Increased uptake of generics and biosimilars can increase value-for-money in health systems.



Ageing & long-term care

Health systems should adapt to meet the needs of an ageing population, including a greater demand for labour-intensive long-term care and more integrated, person-centred care.



Explore our data

  • Source: OECD (2023), Health at a Glance 2023: Facts and figures