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Publications & Documents


  • 12-April-2022

    English

    Brain-computer interfaces and the governance system - Upstream approaches

    Brain-computer interface (BCI) systems are in a period of rapid development and offer significant potential for the promotion of health and well-being. At the same time, they raise a range of unique ethical, legal, and policy questions, and few BCI-specific rules exist in a fragmented regulatory landscape. This report aims to help develop a responsible and anticipatory governance approach to promote innovation while shaping the trajectory of technology through a set of mechanisms, including (i) soft law, (ii) standardisation and ethics-by-design approaches, (iii) corporate self-governance, and (iv) participatory experiments for upstream governance.
  • 6-avril-2022

    Français

    Principaux indicateurs de la science et de la technologie

    Un jeu d'indicateurs mis à jour régulièrement qui reflète le niveau et la structure des efforts menés par les pays de l'OCDE et par une sélection d'économies non-membres dans les domaines de la science et de la technologie.

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  • 29-March-2022

    English

    Disentangling untruths online - Creators, spreaders and how to stop them

    While false rumours, inaccurate reporting, and conspiracy theories have existed for as long as there were people to create and spread them, the Internet has reshaped and amplified the ability to produce and perpetuate false and misleading content. Stopping the creators and spreaders of untruths online is essential to reducing political polarisation, building public trust in democratic institutions, improving public health, and more generally improving the wellbeing of people and society. This Going Digital Toolkit note discusses the importance of access to accurate information online and presents a novel typology of the different types of untruths that circulate on the Internet. It considers how untruths are spread online as well as the consequences, and it surveys the evidence base of false and misleading information online. The note concludes by identifying approaches to fighting untruths online and mitigating their negative effects.
  • 24-March-2022

    English

    Measuring Tax Support for R&D and Innovation

    Governments worldwide increasingly rely on tax incentives in addition to direct support measures (e.g. grants) to promote R&D in firms and encourage innovation and economic growth. The OECD has developed experimental methodologies and a detailed database on R&D tax incentives with the latest indicators on the cost and information on the design and scope of R&D tax incentives.

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  • 24-March-2022

    English

    Designing and delivering public services in the digital age

    Providing public services that deliver on the potential of digital technology and data presents a challenge for many governments. Yet, 'being digital' is not optional, but a core condition, for governments seeking to provide services that are user-driven, inclusive, resilient, innovative and trustworthy. Achieving digital government maturity requires holistic, comprehensive transformation from within and throughout the machinery of government. It involves reshaping organisations’ culture, capability (including talent, skills and resources), and governance to support user-centred approaches, agility, integration and cohesion to design and deliver quality public services that meet the needs of citizens and businesses. This Going Digital Toolkit note presents action-oriented principles to guide policy makers and public servants when designing and delivering public services fit for the digital age. The Annex contains a selection of practices by a variety of countries for each principle.
  • 22-March-2022

    English

    The Strategic and Responsible Use of Artificial Intelligence in the Public Sector of Latin America and the Caribbean

    Governments can use artificial intelligence (AI) to design better policies and make better and more targeted decisions, enhance communication and engagement with citizens, and improve the speed and quality of public services. The Latin America and the Caribbean (LAC) region is seeking to leverage the immense potential of AI to promote the digital transformation of the public sector. The OECD, in collaboration with CAF, Development Bank of Latin America, prepared this report to help national governments in the LAC region understand the current regional baseline of activities and capacities for AI in the public sector; to identify specific approaches and actions they can take to enhance their ability to use this emerging technology for efficient, effective and responsive governments; and to collaborate across borders in pursuit of a regional vision for AI in the public sector. This report incorporates a stocktaking of each country’s strategies and commitments around AI in the public sector, including their alignment with the OECD AI Principles. It also includes an analysis of efforts to build key governance capacities and put in place critical enablers for AI in the public sector. It concludes with a series of recommendations for governments in the LAC region.
  • 8-mars-2022

    Français

    Les effets de l’IA sur la vie professionnelle des femmes

    Le développement et l'utilisation de l'intelligence artificielle (IA) continuent d’élargir les possibilités de réalisation des 17 objectifs de développement durable (ODD) des Nations unies, notamment l’égalité des genres. En examinant de plus près l’intersection entre le genre et la technologie, cette collaboration entre l’UNESCO, la Banque interaméricaine de développement (BID) et l’Organisation de coopération et de développement économiques (OCDE) examine les effets de l'IA sur la vie professionnelle des femmes. Ce rapport rend compte de défis et des opportunités présentés par l’utilisation de technologies émergentes telles que l’IA dans une perspective de genre. Le rapport souligne la nécessité de se concentrer davantage et de mener des recherches sur les impacts de l’IA sur les femmes et sur le fossé numérique entre les sexes, afin de s'assurer que les femmes ne sont pas laissées pour compte dans l’avenir du travail.
  • 7-mars-2022

    Français

    Science, technologie et innovation: Tableau de bord de l'OCDE

    La nouvelle plateforme STI.Scoreboard offre la possibilité d’extraire, visualiser, comparer et partager plus de 1000 indicateurs statistiques des systèmes de science, technologie et innovation pour les pays de l'OCDE ainsi que plusieurs autres économies.

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  • 22-February-2022

    English

    OECD Framework for the Classification of AI systems

    As artificial intelligence (AI) integrates all sectors at a rapid pace, different AI systems bring different benefits and risks. In comparing virtual assistants, self-driving vehicles and video recommendations for children, it is easy to see that the benefits and risks of each are very different. Their specificities will require different approaches to policy making and governance. To help policy makers, regulators, legislators and others characterise AI systems deployed in specific contexts, the OECD has developed a user-friendly tool to evaluate AI systems from a policy perspective. It can be applied to the widest range of AI systems across the following dimensions: People & Planet; Economic Context; Data & Input; AI model; and Task & Output. Each of the framework's dimensions has a subset of properties and attributes to define and assess policy implications and to guide an innovative and trustworthy approach to AI as outlined in the OECD AI Principles.
  • 21-February-2022

    English

    2nd International Conference on AI in Work, Innovation, Productivity and Skills, 21-25 February 2022

    This virtual event brings together leading voices from the technical, policy, business, academic and civil society communities to present insights on the adoption of AI in firms and the workplace, ethics of its use, and implications on skills, business dynamics, and productivity. It will also see the launch of the OECD AI Systems Classification Framework.

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