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Publications & Documents


  • 29-July-2021

    English

    Making life richer, easier and healthier - Robots, their future and the roles for public policy

    This paper addresses the current and emerging uses and impacts of robots, the mid-term future of robotics and the role of policy. Progress in robotics will help to make life easier, richer and healthier. Wider robot use will help raise labour productivity. As science and engineering progress, robots will become more central to crisis response, from helping combat infectious diseases to maintaining critical infrastructure. Governments can accelerate and orient the development and uptake of socially valuable robots, for instance by: supporting cross-disciplinary R&D, facilitating research commercialisation, helping small and medium-size enterprises (SMEs) understand the opportunities for investment in robots, supporting platforms that highlight robot solutions in healthcare and other sectors, embedding robotics engineering in high school curricula, tailoring training for workers with vocational-level mechanical skills, supporting data development useful to robotics, ensuring flexible regulation conducive to innovation, strengthening digital connectivity, and raising awareness of the importance of robotics.
  • 22-July-2021

    English

    Open Science

    The OECD is working with member and non-member economies to review policies to promote open science and to assess their impact on research and innovation.

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  • 20-July-2021

    English

    Bridging connectivity divides

    As countries weather the COVID-19 health emergency, high-quality connectivity, more than ever, is essential to ensure that economic activities can continue in a remote manner. However, important disparities in terms of connectivity persist, aggravating the consequences of the health emergency. Therefore, policies aiming to reduce connectivity divides are of paramount importance. This report explores policies and regulations in OECD countries that have proven successful to work towards closing connectivity divides. It offers a roadmap to policy makers on the overarching policies and regulatory measures to expand connectivity, as well as the tailored approaches to extend broadband networks in rural and remote areas.
  • 20-July-2021

    English

    Space technology transfers and their commercialisation

    This paper examines space technology transfers and their commercialisation, focussing on transfers from publicly funded space programmes to different sectors of the economy. It notably compares practices from Europe, North America and Asia for the first time. It identifies the conditions for enabling successful space technology transfers, as well as the most common channels for commercialisation. The paper also reviews methodological issues in measuring and assessing the benefits of transfers, and provides recommendations to develop improved and internationally comparable evidence. The analysis benefits from original content and endorsement from some of the most active space agencies in OECD countries and beyond.
  • 20-July-2021

    English

    Open science - Enabling discovery in the digital age

    Data-driven innovation and data-intensive science hold immense promise to address grand societal challenges. Open science initiatives, which facilitate open access to publications, data, algorithms, software and workflows, play an essential role in accelerating needed scientific research and the innovation process itself. This Going Digital Toolkit note provides an overview of the open science movement, highlights achievements of open science including that in the context of the COVID-19 pandemic, identifies challenges to achieving all of the benefits that open science has to offer, and sheds light on the evolution of open science policies in a range of economies. The note also advocates a way forward that involves the seven pillars of the revised OECD Recommendation of the Council concerning Access to Research Data from Public Funding: (1) Data governance for trust; (2) Technical standards and practices; (3) Incentives and rewards; (4) Responsibility, ownership and stewardship; (5) Sustainable infrastructures; (6) Human capital; and (7) International co-operation for access to research data.
  • 14-juillet-2021

    Français

    Rapport du Secrétaire général de l’OCDE aux ministres 2021

    Cette édition du rapport du Secrétaire général de l'OCDE aux ministres présente les principales réalisations de l'OCDE en 2020. Elle met l’accent sur les efforts de l’Organisation pour contribuer à la gestion de la crise du COVID-19 et ouvrir la voie à une reprise qui soit à la fois plus forte, plus inclusive, plus résiliente et plus verte. Elle décrit les travaux de l’OCDE dans tout un éventail de domaines essentiels tels que la santé, l’emploi, les inégalités, l'économie, la fiscalité, l'éducation, l'environnement, et bien d’autres encore. Ce rapport présente aussi les activités du Secrétaire général et de son cabinet, ainsi que celles des directions, des Secrétariats des entités appartenant à la famille OCDE et des partenaires sociaux de l'OCDE. L'OCDE s'efforce de trouver des solutions fondées sur des données probantes à toute une série de défis sociaux, économiques et environnementaux, en promouvant « Des politiques meilleures pour une vie meilleure ». L’OCDE constitue l’une des sources les plus importantes et les plus fiables de recherche et de données statistiques comparables au monde. Elle fait office de pionnier pour l’élaboration de nouvelles trames narratives et de nouvelles initiatives à l’échelle mondiale, mais aussi de « laboratoire d’action », prêt à soutenir ses membres et partenaires grâce à ses données, ses normes et ses conseils stratégiques.
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  • 8-July-2021

    English

    A new approach to skills mismatch

    Skills mismatch - the sub-optimal use of an individual's skills in their occupation - can be a source of dissatisfaction for workers and a brake for productivity growth. In our view, a difference in the level of skills within an occupation is not sufficient to infer that a skills mismatch exists. Since skills-mismatch is the result of a disparity between the supply and demand of labour, the quantifying of skills-mismatch must therefore be based on the mechanisms involved in this disparity. We propose to include in our measurement the level of education and field of study, which are key markers of an individual's skill level in the labour market. This makes it possible to identify, among individuals whose skill level differs from others within an occupation, those whose training profile can (or cannot) explain this situation. Through using the OECD PIAAC 2012 survey, this paper first identifies with data for France, individuals who present an apparent skills mismatch according to the framework proposed. Following an international comparison of 'apparent skills mismatch rates', we conclude this study by observing how the different groups identified differ in terms of how they perceive their employment situation as well as their individual characteristics.
  • 8-July-2021

    English

    Productivity and human capital - The Italian case

    This paper investigates whether and how worker composition, ownership and management affect the productivity of firms. To this aim, we use a dataset obtained by integrating the micro-data drawn from Rilevazione su Imprese e Lavoro (RIL), a survey conducted by Inapp in 2010 and 2015 on a representative sample of Italian limited liability and partnership firms, with the AIDA archive containing comprehensive information on the balance sheets of almost all the Italian corporations. We apply different regression models and the findings reveal that a higher share of skilled workers within firms and more experienced managers are associated with higher productivity levels. In addition, firms run by managers with higher education are more likely to introduce innovation. Finally, family ownership and the coincidence of management with ownership are negatively related with firm productivity.
  • 8-July-2021

    English

    Employee training and firm performance - Evidence from ESF grant applications

    As work changes, firm-provided training may become more relevant. However, there is little causal evidence about the effects of training on firms. This paper studies a large training grants programme in Portugal, supported by the European Social Fund, contrasting firms that received the grants and firms that also applied but were unsuccessful. Combining several rich data sets, we compare many potential outcomes of these firms, while following them over several years both before and after the grant decision. Our difference-in-differences models estimate significant positive effects on take up (training hours and expenditure), with limited deadweight; and that such additional training led to increased sales, value added, employment, productivity, and exports (although not profits). These effects tend to be of at least 5% and, in some cases, 10% or more, and are robust in multiple dimensions.
  • 8-July-2021

    English

    Financial distress and the role of management in micro and small-sized firms

    In this paper, we focus on the managerial characteristics of micro and small-sized firms. Using linked employer-employee data on the Portuguese economy for the 2010-2018 period, we estimate the impact of management teams’ human capital on the probability of firms becoming financially distressed and their subsequent recovery. Our estimates show that the relevance of management teams’ formal education on the probability of firms becoming financially distressed depends on firms’ size and the type of education. We show that management teams’ formal education and tenure reduce the probability of micro and small-sized firms becoming financially distressed and increases the probability of their subsequent recovery. The estimates also suggest that those impacts are stronger for micro and small-sized firms. Additionally, our results show that functional experience previously acquired in other firms, namely in foreign-owned and in exporting firms and in the area of finance, may reduce the probability of micro firms becoming financially distressed. On the other hand, previous functional experience in other firms seems to have a strong and highly significant impact on increasing the odds of recovery of financially distressed firms. We conclude that policies that induce an improvement in the managerial human capital of micro and small-sized firms have significant scope to improve their financial condition, enhancing the economy’s resilience against shocks.
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