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Publications & Documents


  • 18-June-2021

    English

    State of implementation of the OECD AI Principles - Insights from national AI policies

    This is the first report on the state of implementation of the policy recommendations to governments contained in the OECD Principles on Artificial Intelligence adopted in May 2019. This report presents a conceptual framework, provides findings, identifies good practices, and examines emerging trends in AI policy, particularly on how countries are implementing the five recommendations to policy makers contained in the OECD AI Principles. The report builds both on the expert input provided at meetings of the OECD.AI Network of Experts working group on national AI policies that took place online from February 2020 to April 2021 and on the EC-OECD database of national AI strategies and policies. As policy makers and AI actors around the world move from principles to implementation, this report aims to inform the implementation of the OECD AI Principles. This report is also a contribution to the OECD AI Policy Observatory.
  • 17-June-2021

    English

    Trade and cross-border data flows

    In today’s digitalised and globally interconnected world, data – and its flow across borders – has become the lifeblood of our economic and social interactions. However, as more data crosses borders, concerns about its use and misuse have emerged. These concerns have led to a growing number of data regulations conditioning the movement of data across borders, affecting trade in the process. This Going Digital Toolkit note provides an overview of the emerging policy landscape related to cross-border data flows with a view to enabling more informed discussions on solutions that can enable the traderelated opportunities of digital transformation while tackling some of the new challenges it raises.
  • 16-June-2021

    English

    Knowledge co-creation in the 21st century - A cross-country experience-based policy report

    The importance of knowledge co-creation – the joint production of innovation between industry, research and possibly other stakeholders, such as civil society – has been increasingly acknowledged. This paper builds on 13 cross-country case studies and co-creation experiences during the COVID-19 pandemic to characterise the diversity of knowledge co-creation initiatives and identify lessons for policy. The paper identifies a strong rationale for policy to support knowledge co-creation because the benefits of successful co-creation initiatives outweigh the initial co-ordination costs. Moreover, knowledge co-creation initiatives can contribute to democratising innovation. Successful initiatives engage all stakeholders and have effective governance and management structures. They also have clearly defined ownership and use rights of the collaborations’ outcomes and benefit from favourable conditions to operate, including temporary staff mobility and institutional set-ups that facilitate collaboration and effective communication among participants.
  • 11-June-2021

    English

    Laying the foundations for artificial intelligence in health

    Artificial intelligence (AI) has the potential to make health care more effective, efficient and equitable. AI applications are on the rise, from clinical decision-making and public health, to biomedical research and drug development, to health system administration and service redesign. The COVID-19 pandemic is serving as a catalyst, yet it is also a reality check, highlighting the limits of existing AI systems. Most AI in health is actually artificial narrow intelligence, designed to accomplish very specific tasks on previously curated data from single settings. In the real world, health data are not always available, standardised, or easily shared. Limited data hinders the ability of AI tools to generate accurate information for diverse populations with potentially very complex conditions. Having appropriate patient data is critical for AI tools because decisions based on models with skewed or incomplete data can put patients at risk. Policy makers should beware of the hype surrounding AI and identify and focus on real problems and opportunities that AI can help address. In setting the foundations for AI to help achieve health policy objectives, one key priority is to improve data quality, interoperability and access in a secure way through better data governance. More broadly, policy makers should work towards implementing and operationalising the OECD AI Principles, as well as investing in technology and human capital. Strong policy frameworks based on inclusive and extensive dialogue among all stakeholders are also key to ensure AI adds value to patients and to societies. AI that influences clinical and public health decisions should be introduced with care. Ultimately, high expectations must be managed, but real opportunities should be pursued.
  • 8-June-2021

    English

    OECD Digital Education Outlook 2021 - Pushing the Frontiers with Artificial Intelligence, Blockchain and Robots

    How might digital technology and notably smart technologies based on artificial intelligence (AI), learning analytics, robotics, and others transform education? This book explores such question. It focuses on how smart technologies currently change education in the classroom and the management of educational organisations and systems. The book delves into beneficial uses of smart technologies such as learning personalisation, supporting students with special learning needs, and blockchain diploma credentialing. It also considers challenges and areas for further research. The findings offer pathways for teachers, policy makers, and educational institutions to digitalise education while optimising equity and inclusivity.
  • 3-June-2021

    English

    Evolving public-private relations in the space sector - Lessons learned for the post-COVID-19 era

    Where is the space sector headed? How can public and private actors work together to solve mutual challenges and sustain growth? What is the role of government programmes and funding? This paper addresses these and other questions by reviewing the evolving relationship between public and private actors in the space sector over the last two decades, based on case studies from North America, Europe and Asia. It provides new evidence for navigating the post-Covid-19 era, notably by exploring the range of government roles in supporting space sector innovation and expansion, from funder and developer of space programmes to partner and enabler of private sector growth.
  • 2-June-2021

    English

    The promises and pitfalls of SupTech for corporate governance-related enforcement

    Digital technologies and data hold the potential to automate and improve the efficiency and effectiveness of regulatory and supervisory processes, which have become increasingly complex given the substantial increase of complex regulatory data in recent years. Securities and financial regulators have turned to supervisory technology (SupTech) tools and solutions as a means to improve their oversight, surveillance and analytical capabilities, which can in turn have important benefits for financial stability and market integrity. This Going Digital Toolkit note takes stock of the most common uses of SupTech by securities regulators to date; identifies its associated benefits, risks and challenges; and outlines considerations for devising adequate SupTech strategies, with a particular focus on corporate governance-related enforcement.
  • 31-May-2021

    English

    Using digital technologies to strengthen shareholder participation

    The right for shareholders to vote and participate in corporate decisions is one of the fundamental building blocks of a well-functioning corporate governance framework. Digital technologies offer important opportunities to strengthen corporate governance by facilitating greater shareholder participation. This Going Digital Toolkit note takes stock of recent developments and lessons learned from efforts to allow shareholders to participate in corporate decision making via virtual meetings, including in the context of the Covid-19 pandemic. The note also highlights the use of distributed ledger technology (DLT) and its potential to address the main challenges raised by the current corporate voting processes, in particular by facilitating the identification of shareholders by issuers and end-to-end confirmation of their votes. Despite these benefits, however, challenges remain that might discourage or slow down the pace of DLT adoption.
  • 28-mai-2021

    Français

    Intégration régionale dans l’Union pour la Méditerranée - Rapport d'étape

    Intégration régionale dans l’Union pour la Méditerranée : Rapport d’étape analyse les grandes tendances et l’évolution de l’intégration dans la région euro-méditerranéenne. Le rapport examine cinq domaines d’intégration régionale, à savoir l’intégration commerciale, l’intégration financière, l’intégration des infrastructures, la mobilité des personnes, ainsi que la recherche et l’enseignement supérieur. Le rapport présente une analyse originale des modèles et des défis de l’intégration dans la région euro-méditerranéenne, qui met en évidence l’interdépendance des domaines examinés – par exemple, comment accroître le commerce régional sans une connectivité des transports abordable ? Le rapport apporte un nouvel éclairage basé sur l’analyse temporelle d’indicateurs de performances quantitatifs et qualitatifs spécifiques. Près de 100 graphiques et tableaux présentent les données de 42 pays membres de l’Union pour la Méditerranée et, le cas échéant, des pays partenaires de la région. Le rapport fournit des points clés à retenir et des recommandations stratégiques visant à favoriser l’intégration régionale dans chacun des cinq domaines.
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