Publications & Documents

  • 9-November-2021


    Neurotechnologies and human rights framework: Do we need new rights?

    Major breakthroughs in neurotechnology have the potential to advance biomedicine and healthcare, but uncertainty exists about the impact and direction of these developments. This round table on 9 November, co-organised by the Council of Europe, will discuss human rights issues raised by the applications of neurotechnologies.

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  • 3-November-2021


    Understanding the tokenisation of assets in financial markets

    Asset tokenisation can generally be described as the digital representation of physical assets on distributed ledgers (also referred to as digital twins) or the issuance of native tokens on the blockchain. Although initially associated with mostly non-compliant initial coin offerings over the period 2017-18, currently tokenisation represents one of the most prominent cases of distributed ledger technologies in financial markets. This Going Digital Toolkit note identifies the different approaches that policy makers have adopted around tokenised assets and the markets for such instruments, and provides examples of these approaches. These approaches are not mutually exclusive and policy makers may differ in the way they address asset tokenisation, participants of tokenised markets, and risks arising in these markets. This Toolkit note does not classify approaches into categories, but rather describes elements and characteristics of different jurisdictional approaches to asset tokenisation, some of which can co-exist.
  • 2-November-2021


    Key nanotechnology indicators

    Indicators include nanotech firms, nanotech R&D, public sector R&D expenditure and nanotechnology patents.

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  • 29-October-2021


    OECD workshop on AI and the productivity of science

    Is there a slowdown in the productivity of science? And if so, why? This interactive virtual workshop to be held from 29 October to 5 November will bring together experts from the artificial intelligence community to advance the debate on what governments can do to maximise the positive impacts of AI on science today and in the decades to come.

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  • 28-October-2021


    Measuring digital trade

    Digital transformation has become a prevalent part of our lives, changing theway we consume, produce and trade, and this trend has only accelerated sincethe COVID-19 crisis. Still, digital transformation remains largely hidden in officialtrade statistics. From a statistical perspective, a fundamental rethink is requiredin the way that core national accounts are constructed if meaningful measuresof digital trade are to be developed. This Going Digital Toolkit note highlights themain features of the OECD-IMF-WTO conceptual framework defining digitaltrade, as well as practical guidance to overcome some of the measurementchallenges. It also catalogues various country initiatives to estimate digital trade.
  • 18-October-2021


    Productivity-wage nexus at the firm-level in Portugal - Decoupling and divergences

    There is a growing international concern about the slowdown in productivity growth, especially as labor productivity enhancements are important drivers of higher generalised living standards. Using administrative data of firms in Portugal between 2010 and 2016, we analyse the relationships between productivity and wages. At odds with neoclassical theory of marginal productivity of labor, we find that two thirds of firms insufficiently raised wages given observed productivity growth. Employing unconditional quantile regressions, we investigate some quantifiable determinants of the productivity-wage gap at different parts of the distributions. Most of the documented dynamics contributed not only to the divergence of productivity and wages but also to the decoupling of productivity and wage growth. We argue that labor market flexibilisation intensified segmentation, providing incentives for non standard contracts. Both dimensions, as well as higher board compensations, international trade and on-the-job training weakened the link between productivity and wages.
  • 13-October-2021


    Enhancing the digital security of critical activities

    The digital transformation of critical activities such as the delivery of water, energy, healthcare, telecommunications, and banking services increasingly exposes them to cybersecurity threats, which can affect the health, safety, and security of citizens, the functioning of essential services, or economic and social prosperity more broadly. This Going Digital Toolkit note introduces key concepts, such as critical activities, critical information infrastructure (CII), cybersecurity and digital security risk management, and helps policymakers identify what needs to be protected and what types of measures operators of critical activities should take. It further discusses the institutional framework to develop and supervise policies to enhance the digital security of critical activities, including trust-based partnerships, and provides a selection of policy approaches from a range of jurisdictions in the Annex.
  • 6-octobre-2021


    Gouvernance des données : améliorer l'accès aux données et leur partage

    La Recommandation de l’OCDE sur l’amélioration de l’accès aux données et de leur partage est le premier ensemble de principes et orientations convenu au plan international sur les moyens, pour les pouvoirs publics, d’optimiser les avantages intersectoriels liés à tous types de données, tout en protégeant les droits des individus et des organisations.

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  • 4-octobre-2021


    Appliquer les Principes de l’OCDE sur l’IA : progrès et perspectives

    Visionnez le replay d'une discussion à haut niveau sur la mise en œuvre des Principes de l'OCDE sur l'intelligence artificielle dans les politiques et la pratique. Cet événement a été diffusé en direct le 4 octobre 2021 dans le cadre de la réunion du Conseil de l’OCDE au niveau des Ministres.

  • 30-September-2021


    Venture capital investments in artificial intelligence - Analysing trends in VC in AI companies from 2012 through 2020

    New analysis of global investments by venture capitalists (VC) in private companies focused on artificial intelligence (AI) found VC investments in AI to be growing at a dramatic pace. The United States and the People’s Republic of China are leading this wave of investments that tend to concentrate on a few key industries. The data showed that the European Union, United Kingdom and Japan increased investments, but lag behind the two dominant players. The study analysed venture capital investments in 8 300 AI firms worldwide, covering 20 549 transactions between 2012 and 2020, based on data provided by Preqin, a private capital-markets analysis firm in London. The data did not capture every deal and required some extrapolation, yet the timeliness of the findings provides a valuable source of information as national governments, international organisations, public and private sectors develop policies and strategies to capture the benefits of AI for all.
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