Publications & Documents

  • 24-September-2021


    Emerging trends in communication market competition

    Communication market structures and their effect on delivering efficient and inclusive connectivity is of key interest to policy makers and regulators. This report discusses emerging competition trends in OECD broadband markets that are shaping market structures, covering both fixed and mobile networks. The increasing complementarity of fixed and wireless networks and the convergence of previously separate markets have led to new forms of communication market competition. While convergence has been acting as a driver for market consolidation, there is also increased scrutiny in merger review. Some OECD countries are discussing options to keep mobile communication markets open to new entrants in the context of merger reviews, while others have experienced a recent wave of entry. The report explores the role of horizontal and vertical mergers in communication markets, presents examples of entry in mobile communication markets, and discusses some of effects of entry and consolidation in OECD markets.
  • 24-September-2021


    Implementation and usage of the OECD Recommendation on Broadband Development

    Without connectivity, there can be no digital transformation of economies and societies. With this in mind, the OECD Recommendation of the Council on Broadband Development was adopted in 2004. Since then, broadband markets, underlying technologies, and the policies in place to spur the development of broadband networks have undergone significant changes. This document summarises the outcome of an extensive questionnaire sent to delegates of OECD countries and stakeholder groups. The questionnaire aimed to gather information on the experience of OECD countries concerning broadband development in general, and more particularly their experience in implementing the 2004 Recommendation. The responses to the questionnaire were used to inform the review and revision of the 2004 Recommendation, which resulted in the adoption of the 2021 OECD Council Recommendation on Broadband Connectivity.
  • 24-September-2021


    Broadband policy and technology developments

    The promotion of widespread, affordable, and high-quality broadband is a prerequisite for the digital transformation of economies and societies. Foreseeing the role of broadband as an accelerator of economic, social and cultural development, the OECD adopted the Council Recommendation on Broadband Development in 2004. Since then, important developments have taken place in broadband technologies and markets. As part of the review of the 2004 Recommendation undertaken from 2018 to 2020 and resulting in the adoption of the revised 2021 OECD Council Recommendation on Broadband Connectivity, this report examines the evolution of broadband technologies, policies and regulation to foster broadband developments since 2004 as well as the benefits of, and challenges to, accelerating these developments to further enable digital transformation and inclusive growth.
  • 22-September-2021


    The human capital behind AI - Jobs and skills demand from online job postings

    Building on recent OECD work, this paper analyses the skills sets ('skills bundles') demanded in artificial intelligence (AI)-related online job postings. The analysis uses Burning Glass Technologies’ data for the United States and the United Kingdom and finds that skills related to the open source programming software Python and to machine learning represent 'must-haves' for working with AI. Employers additionally value specialised skills related to robotics, AI development and applying AI. A comparison of the periods 2013-15 and 2017-19 shows that the latter two have become more interrelated over time, with 'neural network' skills connecting both groups. Network analysis relating AI skills to general skills highlights the growing role of socio-emotional skills; and of skill bundles related to programming, management of big data and data analysis. Key results hold for both countries and time periods, though differences emerge across occupations and industries.
  • 14-September-2021


    Bridging connectivity divides

    Reliable and high-quality connectivity is fundamental for the digital transformation. Now more than ever, access to high-quality broadband services at affordable prices is essential to ensure that economic and social activities can continue in an increasingly remote manner. However, important disparities in terms of connectivity persist, aggravating the consequences of digital divides. As such, expanding connectivity to achieve an inclusive society is at the heart of policy agendas in OECD countries. However, more concretely, what are the innovative policies and regulatory measures that have proven to work best to ensure connectivity for all? This Going Digital Toolkit note provides a 'roadmap' to policymakers by identifying policies and regulation to effectively reduce connectivity divides. Such policies include promoting competition, fostering investment, and removing barriers to broadband deployment, as well as a set of tailored approaches that are particularly relevant to extending connectivity in rural and remote areas. The Annex of this note provides examples of related policy and regulatory approaches implemented by different OECD countries.
  • 5-août-2021


    Répercussions du COVID-19 sur le secteur spatial

    La croissance récente du secteur sptial a donné lieu à un niveau sans précédent d’activité entrepreneuriale et de création d’entreprises. Toutefois, cette tendance positive pourrait s’inverser sous l’effet de la crise du COVID‑19.

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  • 4-August-2021


    SMEs Going Digital - Policy challenges and recommendations

    Despite potential benefits, small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) lag behind larger firms in their adoption of digital technologies. Moreover, digital adoption by SMEs is to a large extent still confined to basic services, and adoption gaps increase as technologies become more sophisticated. The COVID-19 crisis has accelerated SME digitalisation, but barriers to adoption persist. The stakes are high, not only because SMEs make up most of the business and industrial fabric in most countries and regions, but also because they are strategic actors in large firms’ supply chains and play a key role in building inclusive and resilient societies. This Going Digital Toolkit note identifies the challenges that governments face in enabling SMEs to benefit from digital transformation and outlines key policy recommendations, including: 1) encouraging digital uptake by SMEs, 2) supporting SME training and upskilling, 3) strengthening management skills in SMEs, and 4) leveraging financial technology (Fintech) and alternative sources of finance for SMEs.
  • 3-August-2021


    An overview of national AI strategies and policies

    As artificial intelligence (AI) advances across economies and societies, policy makers and AI actors around the world seek to move from principles to practice. To harness the benefits of AI while mitigating the risks, governments are investing in AI R&D; leveraging AI in specific industries such as transportation and healthcare; building human capacity on AI; ensuring a fair labour market transformation; reviewing and adapting relevant policy and regulatory frameworks and developing standards; and co-operating internationally. This Going Digital Toolkit note provides an overview of the various AI policy initiatives undertaken by governments and analyses these initiatives throughout the AI policy cycle: 1) policy design; 2) policy implementation; 3) policy intelligence; and 4) approaches for international and multi-stakeholder co-operation on AI policy.
  • 30-July-2021


    Value chains in public marine data - A UK case study

    Marine data play a crucial role for many scientific disciplines, as well as for very diverse operational services such as fisheries management, environmental planning, marine conservation, weather forecasting, or port management. The information derived from marine data is also increasingly finding its way into a wide and varied range of public policy arenas and private industries. Collecting, distributing and archiving public marine data provide benefits to society at large, however as with all public investments, assessments are needed to provide evidence to decision makers. Based on an original survey of UK marine data users, this paper explores pathways through which marine data are used and transformed into actionable information, creating systematised value chains for the first time. The analysis unveils trends in current marine data uses in the UK and key benefits of data uses. The paper lays the foundations for further OECD work with the marine data community.
  • 29-July-2021


    Corporate effective tax rates for R&D - The case of expenditure-based R&D tax incentives

    R&D tax incentives have become a widely used policy tool to promote business R&D. How do they shape firms’ incentives to invest in R&D? This paper contributes a methodology to construct forward-looking effective tax rates for an R&D investment that reflect the value of expenditure-based R&D tax incentives. The new OECD estimates cover 48 countries and consider the case of large profitable firms, accounting for the bulk of R&D in most economies. The results provide new insights into the generosity of R&D tax incentives from the perspective of firms that decide on whether or where to invest in R&D (extensive margin) and the level (intensive margin) of R&D investment. The generosity of the favourable tax treatment of R&D is shown to vary at the intensive and extensive margins, highlighting differences in countries’ strategies to support R&D through the tax system.
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