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  • 1-mars-2022

    Français

    Coopération pour le développement 2021 - Pour une transformation numérique juste

    Intelligence artificielle, robotique, Internet des objets ... : la transformation numérique révolutionne les économies et les sociétés. Dans cette économie mondiale numérisée, les pays à revenu faible ou intermédiaire peinent à trouver leur place, à cause d'un manque de capacités et de compétences numériques, mais aussi du fait de la fragmentation des règles mondiales et régionales. Qui plus est, les déficits de gouvernance et l'usage malveillant de la technologie numérique y représentent une menace pour la stabilité politique, la démocratie, les droits de l'homme et l'égalité. L'édition 2021 du rapport Coopération pour le développement appelle à mettre le principe d'inclusion au cœur des processus de technologie numérique, ainsi que des normes et standards qui sont en train d'émerger. Avec les données les plus récentes et les analyses d'experts gouvernementaux, des organisations internationales, des universités, des entreprises et de la société civile, le rapport offre aux organismes de développement international les conseils et bonnes pratiques pour mettre les individus, les communautés et les objectifs de développement durable au centre de la transformation numérique.
  • 21-décembre-2021

    Français

    Perspectives de l'OCDE sur les PME et l'entrepreneuriat 2021

    Les petites et moyennes entreprises (PME) et les entrepreneurs ont été durement touchés pendant la crise du COVID-19. Les réponses politiques ont été rapides et sans précédent, aidant à amortir le choc et à maintenir la plupart des PME et des entrepreneurs à flot. Malgré l’ampleur du choc, les données disponibles jusqu’à présent indiquent une création soutenue de start-ups, aucune vague de faillites et une impulsion à l’innovation dans la plupart des pays de l’OCDE. Cependant, le soutien des gouvernements a été moins efficace pour les travailleurs autonomes, les petites et jeunes entreprises, les femmes et les entrepreneurs issus de minorités. Les pays n’ont pas non plus tous été en mesure de soutenir les PME. Alors que les campagnes de vaccination se déploient et que les perspectives économiques s’éclaircissent, les gouvernements doivent prendre le virage d’une sortie de crise et créer les conditions nécessaires pour reconstruire en mieux. Les Perspectives 2021 de l’OCDE pour les PME et l’entrepreneuriat apportent de nouvelles données probantes sur l’impact de la crise sur les PME et les entrepreneurs et les réponses politiques apportées. Elles réfléchissent à des questions à plus long terme, telles que l’endettement des PME ou le rôle des PME dans des chaînes d’approvisionnement plus résilientes, ou la diffusion de l’innovation. Le rapport contient des profils de pays qui comparent l’impact, les facteurs de vulnérabilité et les sources de résilience dans les pays de l’OCDE, et mettent l’accent sur le soutien à la liquidité et les plans de redressement pour les PME.
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  • 21-December-2021

    English

    Promoting comparability in personal data breach notification reporting

    This report provides the key findings of an OECD survey on comparability in personal data breach notification (PDBN) reporting that was implemented from June 2019 to February 2020. The main findings show a general trend towards mandatory PDBN regulation and identify internationally comparable data metrics used by privacy enforcement authorities (PEAs). The metrics include the number of reported PDBNs, data on the nature of causes, specific causes, and the types of data breached. In addition, the survey identified the types of questions suitable for internationally comparable data collections by PEAs. These include questions on sectoral application of mandatory PDBN, thresholds and timeframes for notifications to the designated authorities and data subjects, and the use of collected data for enforcement collaboration. The survey also sheds light on some of the possible challenges in improving international comparability such as lack of common standards in the industrial classifications used by PEAs.
  • 21-December-2021

    English

    Improving effectiveness of Lithuania’s innovation policy

    This paper concludes the project 'Support to Improve Effectiveness of Lithuania’s Innovation Policy' which summarises the findings, policy options and recommended actions. It aimed at providing support to efforts of the Government of Lithuania to better deliver existing policies, and develop and implement appropriate new policies, instruments and institutions in selected areas of science, technology and innovation (STI) policy. The report takes stock of recent policy actions taken since the 'OECD Review of Innovation Policy: Lithuania 2016'. Drawing on international good practices it explores the scope for improvement in selected areas of STI policy: a) consolidation of innovation agencies and enhancing Lithuania’s STI Council, b) public procurement of innovation , c) mission-oriented innovation policies, and d) industry 4.0 and artificial intelligence. The project has been aligned with ongoing Lithuanian reform processes, some of which are reflected in the ‘New Generation Lithuania’ plan related to the EU’s Recovery and Resilience Facility.
  • 20-December-2021

    English

    Promoting high-quality broadband networks in G20 countries

    Connectivity is an essential pillar of ensuring an inclusive digital transformation. The COVID-19 health emergency has further accentuated the awareness of how the quality, capability and resilience of broadband networks are becoming even more critical to ensure an inclusive society as more and more activities, such as work and education, are conducted in a remote manner. Therefore, policies aiming to expand connectivity and increase its quality are of paramount importance. Furthermore, analysing the performance of networks is crucial to inform policy makers and regulators to identify quality gaps and design the right policies and regulation towards closing those gaps. This report focuses on the state of broadband speed quality across the G20 and how to upgrade the speeds of networks further to spur economic recovery. It identifies existing gaps and puts forward policies and regulation towards extending high-quality networks and upgrading the quality of networks.
  • 20-December-2021

    English

    Firms going digital - Tapping into the potential of data for innovation

    This paper aims to help policy makers understand and improve the conditions for firms to thrive in an increasingly digital economy where data has become an important resource for innovation. The paper: 1) analyses trends in the adoption of information and communication technologies and activities that enable firms to collect, store and use data, including big data analysis (BDA); 2) provides new evidence from micro-econometric analysis of firms’ BDA and innovation in products, processes, marketing and organisation, considering different types of data used for BDA; 3) examines business models of firms that successfully innovate with data; and 4) discusses policies that can help improve the conditions for all firms to go digital and tap into the potential of data for innovation.
  • 20-December-2021

    English

    Mapping data portability initiatives, opportunities and challenges

    Data portability has become an essential tool for enhancing access to and sharing of data across digital services and platforms. This report explores to what extent data portability can empower users (natural and legal persons) to play a more active role in the re-use of their data across digital services and platforms. It also examines how data portability can help increase interoperability and data flows and thus enhance competition and innovation by reducing switching costs and lock-in effects.
  • 20-December-2021

    English

    Bridging digital divides in G20 countries

    Reliable and high-quality connectivity is fundamental for the digital transformation. Furthermore, the COVID-19 health emergency has shown that access to high-quality broadband services at affordable prices, across different territories is essential to ensure that economic and social activities can continue in an increasingly remote manner. However, important disparities in terms of connectivity persist in G20 countries and especially within countries between different types of regions. Overcoming the territorial divide is essential to ensure that no region and its inhabitants are left behind, regardless of where they live. This report offers a roadmap to policy makers to reduce the digital divides experienced by people living in different places within countries. While this is a key policy goal, the reduction of regional disparities needs to be accompanied with sufficiently high levels of broadband speeds across regions for people to be able to fully benefit from the economic opportunities and services brought about by digitalization.
  • 14-December-2021

    English

    Enhancing the impact of Italy’s start-up visa - What can be learnt from international practice?

    Italy’s start-up visa aims to make the national start-up ecosystem more easily accessible to foreign talent, rich with knowledge and skills, and more integrated into global markets. Government reports show that the programme has not yet achieved a critical scale. The analysis of similar initiatives in Chile, France, Ireland and Portugal identifies five gateways for attracting more foreign entrepreneurs, such as an effective policy outreach, smooth inter-institutional co-operation across the migratory process, and the provision of sound support services for a 'soft landing' of entrepreneurs upon arrival. These takeaways may also inform new talent attraction policies targeting remote workers, an expanding group in the context of the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic.
  • 13-December-2021

    English

    Opportunities and drawbacks of using artificial intelligence for training

    Technological developments are one of the major forces behind the need for retraining, but they can also be part of the solution. In particular, Artificial Intelligence (AI) has the potential to increase training participation, including among currently underrepresented groups, by lowering some of the barriers to training that people experience and by increasing motivation to train. Moreover, certain AI solutions for training may improve the alignment of training to labour market needs, and reduce bias and discrimination in the workplace. In order to realise the benefits of AI for training and ensure that it yields benefits for all, it will be necessary to address potential drawbacks in terms of changing skills requirements, inequalities in access to data, technology and infrastructure and important ethical issues. Finally, even when these drawbacks can be addressed, the introduction and expansion of AI tools for training is constrained by the supply of AI skills in the workforce and the availability of scientific evidence regarding the benefits of AI tools for training and whether they are cost-effective.
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