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  • 1-May-2020

    English

    Identifying and measuring developments in artificial intelligence - Making the impossible possible

    This paper identifies and measures developments in science, algorithms and technologies related to artificial intelligence (AI). Using information from scientific publications, open source software (OSS) and patents, it finds a marked increase in AI-related developments over recent years. Since 2015, AI-related publications have increased by 23% per year; from 2014 to 2018, AI-related OSS contributions grew at a rate three times greater than other OSS contributions; and AI-related inventions comprised, on average, more than 2.3% of IP5 patent families in 2017. China’s growing role in the AI space also emerges. The analysis relies on a three-pronged approach based on established bibliometric and patent-based methods, and machine learning (ML) implemented on purposely collected OSS data.
  • 30-April-2020

    English

    Mr. Angel Gurría, Secretary-General of the OECD, at the G20 Digital Economy Task Force Ministers virtual meeting, Thursday 30 April 2020

    Mr. Angel Gurría, Secretary-General of the OECD, will attend remotely the G20 Digital Economy Task Force Ministers virtual meeting on Thursday 30 April 2020, where he will deliver remarks.

    Related Documents
  • 30-April-2020

    English

    Enhanced Access to Publicly Funded Data for Science, Technology and Innovation

    In increasingly knowledge-based societies and economies, data are a key resource. Enhanced access to publicly funded data enables research and innovation, and has far-reaching effects on resource efficiency, productivity and competitiveness, creating benefits for society at large. Yet these benefits must also be balanced against associated risks to privacy, intellectual property, national security and the public interest. This report presents current policy practice to promote access to publicly funded data for science, technology and innovation, as well as policy challenges for the future. It examines national policies and international initiatives, and identifies seven issues that require policy attention.
  • 9-April-2020

    English

    The 2018 OECD International Survey of Scientific Authors

    This technical paper describes the methodology and main features of the second pilot of the OECD International Survey of Scientific Authors (ISSA2). ISSA2 was carried out in 2018 to provide evidence on the nature and effects of digitalisation in science. This paper describes the key design and implementation feature of the ISSA2 online survey. It also provides an overview of the data collected focusing on the profiles of the survey respondents in relation to the broader population they represent. This aims to guide third-party research use of the data and code made openly available under two different access regimes.
  • 9-April-2020

    English

    Measuring consumer detriment and the impact of consumer policy - Feasibility study

    This paper examines possible methodologies for estimating consumer detriment, as well as the impacts of consumer agency actions and consumer policy more broadly. It also provides practical guidance for developing and strengthening the effectiveness of consumer policymaking frameworks. The report was prepared to inform a project by the OECD Committee on Consumer Policy (CCP) to explore ways to ensure that consumer policymaking is based on the best available data on likely costs and benefits.
  • 9-April-2020

    English

    Charting the digital transformation of science - Findings from the 2018 OECD International Survey of Scientific Authors (ISSA2)

    This paper presents the results of the 2018 OECD International Survey of Scientific Authors (ISSA2), a global online survey designed and implemented to measure the key features of the digital transformation of science. The paper explores the potential impacts of digitalisation based on a combination of different indicators on research impact and responses from nearly 12 000 authors across the world. The evidence shows that although digital activity is pervasive, the transformation is uneven across fields and sectors, and is influenced by factors such as norms, experience, skills and data availability. Overall, scientists appear to be optimistic about the potential of digitalisation, especially in relation to the efficiency of research and collaboration across national borders. This paper is also the first analysis to leverage a new OECD approach to data collection in priority science policy topics for which evidence might be scarce or insufficiently timely.
  • 8-April-2020

    English

    Space sustainability - The economics of space debris in perspective

    This paper explores selected long-term sustainability issues related to increasing activities in outer space, with a particular focus on the economics of space debris. It reviews trends of selected space sustainability issues and discusses a range of possible policy actions. A notable policy response would be to strengthen space situational awareness systems and data reporting structures, while addressing operator compliance behaviour at both the national and international levels. Adequately addressing these challenges will require a reinforced coordinated international approach, in addition to increased collaboration with the private sector.
  • 27-March-2020

    English

    Strengthening the Governance of Skills Systems - Lessons from Six OECD Countries

    The governance of skills systems has always raised a number of challenges for governments. Being at the intersection of education, labour market, industrial and other policy domains, managing skills policies is inherently complex. Addressing these challenges is more than ever crucial as globalisation, technological progress and demographic change are putting daunting pressures on skills systems to ensure that all members of society are equipped with the skills necessary to thrive in a rapidly changing world. Strengthening the Governance of Skills Systems: Lessons from Six OECD Countries provides advice on how to make the governance of skills systems effective. Building on the OECD Skills Strategy 2019, which identified four main challenges of skills systems governance, the report presents examples of how six different countries (Estonia, Germany, Korea, Norway, Portugal and the United States) have responded to one or several of these challenges. It also outlines concrete policy recommendations together with a self-assessment tool which provides guidance to policy makers and stakeholders for designing better skills systems that deliver better skills outcomes.
  • 19-March-2020

    English

    Patterns of innovation, advanced technology use and business practices in Canadian firms

    This paper uses a distributed microdata analysis approach to map patterns of technology adoption in Canadian firms, exploring the relationship between technology adoption, business practices and innovation. Prepared by the OECD NESTI secretariat in collaboration with Statistics Canada, the paper leverages a unique enterprise database combining information on innovation, technology adoption and the use of selected business practices. This work suggests a number of possible pathways for selecting and defining priority technology and business practices for data collection and reporting, implementing recommendations in the 2018 Oslo Manual on enablers and objectives of business innovation, and identifying potential synergies between business innovation, management and ICT, and other surveys focused on various aspects of technology adoption.
  • 5-March-2020

    English

    Laggard firms, technology diffusion and its structural and policy determinants

    This paper provides new evidence on the main characteristics of laggard firms - firms in the bottom 40% of the productivity distribution - and their potential for productivity growth. It finds that laggards are on average younger and smaller than more productive firms, and matter for aggregate resource reallocation. Moreover, younger laggards converge faster toward the productivity frontier, suggesting that the composition of the laggard group matters for future productivity. Yet this report finds that laggards converge at a slower rate in highly digital- and skill-intensive industries, suggesting that there are barriers to technology and knowledge diffusion. This could help explain the much-debated productivity slowdown and the increased productivity dispersion. This report also finds that policies aimed at improving workers’ skills, alleviating financial constraints to investments and increasing firms' absorptive capacity through direct R&D support can accelerate the diffusion of knowledge and technology, and help laggard firms to catch up.
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