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  • 23-April-2021

    English

    Transparency reporting - Considerations for the review of the privacy guidelines

    This report presents evidence on efforts taken by companies to ensure trust in the digital economy through transparency reporting. Focussing on the world’s most widely used social media platforms, online communication services, file-sharing platforms and other online services (many of which are based in the United States), the report identifies both good practices and challenges in transparency reporting. Challenges include limited informative value and comparability, as well as an inability to provide reliable information on the extent to which governments gain access to personal data held by the private sector. A range of actions are proposed to address these challenges, recognising the need to develop a more robust evidence base by expanding the number of countries and companies analysed. This report informed the review of the OECD Privacy Guidelines.
  • 22-April-2021

    English

    The OECD Framework for digital talent and skills in the public sector

    The rapid pace of technological advance and associated potential for the use of data have not only changed the way people live but also the way people work. This digital disruption hits all sectors, including the public sector, and this working paper emphasises pathways for developing a public sector workforce with the necessary skills to achieve successful digital transformation. It presents the OECD Framework for Digital Talent and Skills in the Public Sector, which highlights the need to create the right working environment, secure the right skills, and evolve the right workforce to support a progression from e-government to digital government.
  • 13-April-2021

    English

    What future for science, technology and innovation after COVID-19?

    The COVID-19 crisis may bring lasting socioeconomic changes, also affecting science, technology and innovation (STI). This paper discusses the effects that the COVID-19 crisis could have on the future of STI and its policies, building on lessons learned from past crises, an analysis of diverse sources of early data and insights from expert discussions in international policy fora. Factors shaping the future of STI include the unequal effects of the crisis on R&D spending across sectors, the accelerated adoption of digital tools and techniques, and changes in the openness and inclusiveness of research and innovation ecosystems. The paper also explores how STI policy could experience fundamental changes as resilience, environmental sustainability and inclusiveness become more prominent objectives on policy agendas. This includes experimentation with new data and digital tools for policy purposes and unconventional policy approaches, which could spur the adoption of new and more effective STI policies.
  • 31-March-2021

    English

    Teachers and Leaders in Vocational Education and Training

    Vocational education and training (VET) plays a central role in preparing young people for work, developing the skills of adults and responding to the labour-market needs of the economy. Teachers and leaders in VET can have an immediate and positive influence on learners’ skills, employability and career development. However, when compared to general academic programmes, there is limited evidence on the characteristics of teachers and institutional leaders in VET and the policies and practices of attracting and preparing them. VET teachers require a mix of pedagogical skills and occupational knowledge and experience, and need to keep these up to date to reflect changing skill needs in the labour market and evolving teaching and learning environments. This report fills the knowledge gap on teachers and leaders in VET, and produces new insights into what strategies and policies can help develop and maintain a well-prepared workforce. It zooms in on VET teacher shortages; strategies for attracting and retaining teachers; initial training and professional development opportunities for teachers; the use of innovative technologies and pedagogical strategies; and the important role of institutional leaders and strategies for better preparing and supporting them.
  • 30-March-2021

    English

    Looking beyond COVID-19 - Strengthening family support services across the OECD

    This paper provides an overview of the nature and key priorities of family support services operating in OECD countries to inform on the factors that contribute to their quality and delivery effectiveness. The evidence collated in this paper draws from the responses to Questionnaires answered by delegates to the OECD Working Party on Social Policy and by around 170 family service providers from OECD countries. The report discusses policy options to help countries develop and sustain the effective delivery of family support services throughout childhood, improve their quality, and to make better use of digital tools to enhance service delivery.
  • 25-March-2021

    English

    Demand for AI skills in jobs - Evidence from online job postings

    This report presents new evidence about occupations requiring artificial intelligence (AI)-related competencies, based on online job posting data and previous work on identifying and measuring developments in AI. It finds that the total number of AI-related jobs increased over time in the four countries considered – Canada, Singapore, the United Kingdom and the United States – and that a growing number of jobs require multiple AI-related skills. Skills related to communication, problem solving, creativity and teamwork gained relative importance over time, as did complementary software-related and AI-specific competencies. As expected, many AI-related jobs are posted in categories such as 'professionals' and 'technicians and associated professionals', though AI-related skills are in demand, to varying degrees, across almost all sectors of the economy. In all countries considered, the sectors 'Information and Communication', 'Financial and Insurance Activities' and 'Professional, Scientific and Technical Activities' are the most AI job-intensive.
  • 16-March-2021

    English

    Business advice for entrepreneurship and small firms

    This paper reviews issues and trends in business advice policies for business start-ups and existing SMEs, including public support for business consultancy and mentoring. Business advice policies aim to improve the growth, survival and productivity performance of new and small firms by strengthening their strategic management capabilities. The paper examines the rationale for government policies in this field, different policy delivery models, recent policy trends - such as increased use of third party delivery and performance management systems - and evidence on policy impacts. It focuses in particular on three key issues faced by policy makers - how to stimulate demand for business development services from firms and entrepreneurs who could benefit; how to target and segment support provided to different types of firms and entrepreneurs; and how to introduce digital business diagnostic tools into the advice system.
  • 5-March-2021

    English

    Delivering Quality Education and Health Care to All - Preparing Regions for Demographic Change

    COVID-19 has put renewed focus on the importance of addressing longstanding challenges that OECD governments face in delivering public services, especially in regions with people spread over a wider area where economies of scale are more difficult to achieve. The physical infrastructure needed to provide good quality education and health services can be more complex and expensive in rural and remote regions that also struggle to attract and retain education and health care professionals. Acute ageing trends in many rural regions and, in some cases, a shrinking population will require sustainable policy responses that will need to be coherent with pressure to drive efficiencies in public spending. This report examines the nuances specific to the delivery of education and health care to people everywhere, offering recommendations on how to better adapt provision to the realities of today and the emerging realities of tomorrow to face the challenges of distance, demographic change and fiscal belt-tightening. The report also examines digital connectivity issues in rural and remote regions, recognising the significant scope for digital delivery of services to mitigate challenges related to distance. Finally, the report looks at governance issues, including fiscal issues, through which the delivery of these critical services is administered and paid for.
  • 1-March-2021

    English

    AI measurement in ICT usage surveys - A review

    This paper takes stock of official statistics on AI use in firms collected through ICT usage surveys. Its aim is to highlight statistically sound data that can be used to guide policymakers and other stakeholders in the complex field of AI. It provides a cross-country comparison of official AI measures in selected OECD countries and international organisations by reviewing the statistical AI definitions developed explicitly for measurement purposes as well as the AI questions in official ICT use surveys. Based on the results of these surveys, the paper provides an international comparison of AI uptake among firms. It also includes a brief overview of smaller-scale non-official measures of AI, which can complement official statistics. In its final part, it makes an initial attempt to match AI policy with the AI measures previously analysed, and highlights possible next steps. This paper is also a contribution to the OECD AI Policy Observatory.
  • 11-February-2021

    English

    Encouraging vulnerability treatment - Overview for policy makers

    Most digital security incidents are caused by malicious actors (e.g. cybercriminals and state-sponsored groups) exploiting vulnerabilities in organisations’ digital ecosystems. Addressing vulnerabilities before attackers take advantage of them is an effective means of reducing the probability of cybersecurity incidents. This paper discusses vulnerabilities in products’ code such as software and firmware, and in how products are implemented in information systems. It shows that the technical community has progressed in developing good practice for treating vulnerabilities, including through co-ordinated vulnerability disclosure (CVD). However, significant economic and social challenges prevent stakeholders from adopting good practice, such as legal frameworks that do not sufficiently protect 'ethical hackers' from legal proceedings. The paper stresses that public policies aimed at removing obstacles and encouraging vulnerability treatment could significantly reduce digital security risk for all. The findings from this paper will inform the development of a new OECD Recommendation in this area.
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