• 12-July-2024


    Content or Discontent? Perceptions of Social Protection in France, Germany and the United Kingdom

    What factors influence satisfaction with social protection? This report investigates differences in perceptions of social protection across countries, with a focus on France, using novel data from the OECD’s Risks that Matter Survey. Compared to respondents in Germany and the United Kingdom, French respondents are systematically the least satisfied with social protection in their country, even as France performs well on many social programme outcome indicators. This report explores a range of different factors influencing perceptions of social protection, including individual risk perceptions; the shape, size and cost of social programmes; frictions in application and service delivery in social programmes; and socio-economic and cultural factors.
  • 11-July-2024


    Organisational structure of budget management - Directions for reform in the Western Balkans and the Republic of Moldova

    This paper studies the differences between the organisation of budget management in selected government administrations in the Western Balkans and the Republic of Moldova and good practice across the European Union (EU). It observes that the ministry of finance (MoF) in these administrations typically engages in direct budget negotiations with a large number of budget organisations. This practice is in stark contrast with the budgeting approach observed in the EU, where the MoF only deals directly with government ministries and a limited number of constitutional bodies. The paper highlights the adverse consequences for the strategic role of the MoF for fiscal policy, the accountability of line ministries for budgeting and service delivery in their sector and the introduction of modern public financial management instruments such as medium-term budgeting and performance-based budgeting. This paper recommends that governments reduce the number of first-level budget organisations and give line ministries more responsibility for budget management in their sector. At the same time, the paper recommends strengthening line ministries’ accountability for budget management towards the parliament.
  • 10-July-2024


    Financing SME growth in Germany

    High energy prices and major geopolitical shifts, paired with an accelerated global digitalisation of industries of economies worldwide and rising pressure to achieve sustainability goals, have created new uncertainties for German SMEs. Successfully navigating these changes, and in turn, seizing new growth opportunities, will require sustained and significant investments. Access to an appropriate and diverse set of financing sources will be critical. This paper examines current policy practices to help German SMEs access finance, with a particular focus on efforts to link growth to sustainability goals in the national policy mix. It provides a brief overview of the German SME landscape, including key strengths and challenges in the context of the twin transition, and discusses the financing instruments available to small businesses in the country, including those with growth ambitions. It then analyses federal government efforts to unleash finance for innovation, investment, and network expansion as drivers of SME growth, and how these efforts compare to other OECD countries.
  • 24-June-2024


    Using AI to manage minimum income benefits and unemployment assistance - Opportunities, risks and possible policy directions

    While means-tested benefits such as minimum income benefits (MIB) and unemployment assistance (UA) are an essential safety net for low-income people and the unemployed, incomplete take-up is the rule rather than the exception. Building on desk research, open-ended surveys and semi-structured interviews, this paper investigates the opportunities and risks of using artificial intelligence (AI) for managing these means-tested benefits. This ranges from providing information to individuals, through determining eligibility based on pre-determined statutory criteria and identifying undue payments, to notifying individuals about their eligibility status. One of the key opportunities of using AI for these purposes is that this may improve the timeliness and take-up of MIB and UA. However, it may also lead to systematically biased eligibility assessments or increase inequalities, amongst others. Finally, the paper explores potential policy directions to help countries seize AI’s opportunities while addressing its risks, when using it for MIB or UA management.
  • 20-June-2024


    Rural Proofing - Lessons from OECD countries and potential application to health

    Improving rural development, well-being and maximising the potential in rural areas requires greater horizontal and vertical co-ordination at the national, regional, and local level as well as the mainstreaming of rural issues across all policies. However, taking an integrated approach to rural development - where rural ministries and non-rural ministries coordinate in the development of polices and initiatives - is often very challenging. Rural proofing is a tool to help policy makers overcome this challenge and develop more nuanced rural-friendly policies. It involves making policy decisions based on evidence on rural dynamics available in a timely fashion to enable changes and adjustments. In practice, however, it is a mechanism that has proved complex to design, implement, and sustain. This article explores how more robust rural proofing models can be developed, with health as a focal point. Drawing on lessons from different OECD member countries, it develops a roadmap for more effective rural proofing mechanisms to help embed the practice in the policy space and culture of governments.
  • 11-June-2024


    OECD Artificial Intelligence Review of Germany

    This report provides an international benchmarking of Germany’s artificial intelligence (AI) ecosystem and discusses progress in implementing its national AI strategy. The report draws on quantitative and qualitative data and insights from the OECD.AI Policy Observatory and from the OECD Programme on AI in Work, Innovation, Productivity and Skills (AI-WIPS) – an OECD research programme financed by the German Federal Government – and results from a series of interviews with a wide range of stakeholders in Germany. The review discusses Germany’s strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, and challenges in AI, and provides recommendations to steer AI policy in Germany in the coming years. The evidence is presented according to the core focus areas outlined in Germany’s national AI strategy, which include: 1) minds; 2) research; 3) transfer and applications; 4) the world of work; 5) policy and regulatory frameworks; and 6) society. Furthermore, the report discusses AI infrastructure and it includes three sector spotlights on AI in the public sector, AI and environmental sustainability and AI and healthcare.
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  • 13-May-2024


    Financial literacy in Germany - Supporting financial resilience and well-being

    The report presents the rationale for increasing the financial literacy levels of individuals in Germany and for the adoption of a National Strategy for Financial Literacy. It describes financial literacy levels, the actors directly involved in promoting financial literacy and the ongoing financial literacy initiatives at the federal, state and local levels. It provides policy recommendations for the design of the National Strategy.
  • 6-February-2024


    Building a Skilled Cyber Security Workforce in Europe - Insights from France, Germany and Poland

    In an increasingly digital world, the significance of cyber security for individuals, businesses, and governments has never been greater. Rising cyber attacks are challenging current defence and operational capabilities, highlighting a critical shortage of skilled cyber security professionals. This report delves into the demand for cyber security expertise by analysing online job postings in France, Germany and Poland in between 2018 and 2023. It examines trends in the demand for cyber security professionals, the geographical distribution of job opportunities, and the changing skill requirements in this field. Focusing on France, the report also explores cyber security education and training programmes, the characteristics of the programmes, the demographics of enrolled learners, and their outcomes. Additionally, it reviews French policies and initiatives aimed at broadening the cyber security workforce and enhancing educational opportunities in this field. This comprehensive analysis is part of a larger effort to understand the evolving landscape of cyber security policies and professional experiences worldwide.
  • 26-January-2024


    Reaching Climate Neutrality for the Hamburg Economy by 2040

    Reaching climate neutrality requires economic transformations of unprecedented scale and speed. Immediate action from the business community can avoid unnecessary costs, create wellbeing co-benefits and prepare local businesses with a better competitive position in the future climate neutral economy. This report shows what reaching climate neutrality by 2040 means for Hamburg businesses and identifies key actions they need to undertake. It provides insights where the Hamburg economy and its businesses stand on the way to climate neutrality and on their needs to advance, drawing on a business survey. The study also shares insights from action plans of selected comparison cities. It points to cross-sector as well as to sector-specific challenges and opportunities for Hamburg businesses. This includes making better use of low-cost renewables, addressing energy efficiency in buildings as well as challenges and opportunities in activities in and around the port and in industry. It highlights Hamburg's potential as a hydrogen hub as well as the need to adopt circular economy practices. It illustrates that a regional and business perspective are necessary to achieve climate neutrality in prosperity, requiring individual and collective business action.
  • 20-décembre-2023


    Examens environnementaux de l'OCDE : Allemagne 2023 (version abrégée)

    L'Allemagne a continué à améliorer ses performances environnementales au cours de la dernière décennie. Elle s'est fixée des objectifs climatiques ambitieux visant à atteindre la neutralité climatique d'ici 2045 et à parvenir à des émissions négatives après 2050. Toutefois, l'Allemagne devra accélérer encore son action climatique, en particulier dans les secteurs du bâtiment et des transports. La triple crise de l'énergie, du climat et de la biodiversité appelle des solutions intégrées et systémiques. En réponse à la crise énergétique, l’Allemagne a pris une série de mesures d’une ampleur historique. Celles-ci devraient accélérer massivement sa transition vers l'énergie verte au cours des années à venir. L’Allemagne renforce également son engagement en faveur de l’adaptation au changement climatique à tous les niveaux de gouvernement, et a lancé un programme ambitieux visant à encourager les investissements dans des solutions fondées sur la nature. Il s’agit du quatrième Examen environnemental de l’Allemagne. Il propose 28 recommandations pour aider l’Allemagne à améliorer ses performances environnementales. La présente version abrégée contient le résumé, de même que l’évaluation et les recommandations officielles du rapport. Le rapport complet est disponible en anglais et en allemand sur le site Internet de l’OCDE.
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