This publication examines the major policy challenges, achievements and next steps
for the creation of a more entrepreneurial population and a stronger SME sector in
the Russian Federation, which are critical to the country’s economic growth and diversification.
Despite less regulatory burdens and more subsidy financing for start-ups, production
modernisation, innovation and exporting, framework conditions need to be improved
in areas such as the rule of law, commercialising science and improving entrepreneurial
skills and education. Gaps in SME and entrepreneurship programmes also need to be
filled, such as through new initiatives for high-growth firms and large firm-SME linkages.
Strengthening business development services infrastructure and improving access to
finance are further important challenges. All these improvements will need to be spread
across the regions of the Russian Federation if national objectives for growth and
balanced spatial development are to be met.