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  • 4-February-2021

    English

    Economic Outlook for Southeast Asia, China and India - Volume 2021 Issue 1

    The Economic Outlook for Southeast Asia, China and India is a regular publication on regional economic growth, development and regional integration in Emerging Asia. It focuses on the economic conditions of Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) member countries: Brunei Darussalam, Cambodia, Indonesia, Lao PDR, Malaysia, Myanmar, the Philippines, Singapore, Thailand and Viet Nam. It also addresses relevant economic issues in China and India to fully reflect economic developments in the region. The Outlook comprises two main parts, each highlighting a particular dimension of recent economic developments in the region. The first part presents the regional economic monitor, depicting the economic outlook and macroeconomic challenges in the region. The second part consists of a special thematic chapter addressing a major issue facing the region. The 2021 edition of the Outlook addresses reallocation of resources to digitalisation in response to COVID-19, with special focuses on health, education and Industry 4.0. During the COVID-19 crisis, digitalisation has proved critical to ensuring the continuity of essential services. The use of e-commerce, digital health tools and on-line education all accelerated sharply during the pandemic in Emerging Asia. However, there is still a lot of work to be done, for the region to be able to get the full benefits of digitalisation.
  • 26-January-2021

    English

    Triangular co-operation with India - Working with civil society organisations

    India is home to a dynamic and vibrant community of civil society organisations (CSOs). Indian CSOs are often innovating to bridge development gaps and cater to the needs of marginalised and vulnerable groups. Historically, India is a pioneer of triangular co‑operation with first projects dating back to India’s independence in 1947. Over the past decade, triangular co-operation has gathered momentum at the global level and India has been a champion of this. A specific Indian model of triangular co-operation is emerging through which India and its partners aim to leverage domestic development innovations and the strengths of India’s diverse landscape of civil society organisations by scaling up bilateral co-operation and partnerships via triangular initiatives. Especially in African and neighbouring Asian countries there is a high demand to learn from Indian innovations and expertise, as they are considered to be easier to adapt to the local contexts. This paper provides insights into different ways of engaging in triangular co‑operation with India and sets out opportunities as well as challenges in enhancing triangular co-operation in the future with a broad range of CSO and government partners.
  • 22-December-2020

    English

    Local Public Finance and Capacity Building in Asia - Issues and Challenges

    Subnational governments’ capacity to effectively fund and deliver public services are crucial for the realisation of the benefits of decentralisation. However, subnational capacities often suffer from significant weaknesses, ranging from inadequate assignments of own-revenues, through to flaws in tax administration, the design of intergovernmental transfers, spending assignments and various aspects of public financial management. The volume discusses how better diagnostics and more strategic reforms can contribute to easing the resource constraints on subnational governments, as well as creating appropriate incentives for these governments to improve performance. The volume includes studies of the enabling conditions for subnational capacity building in Asia, as well as focused studies of China and India's fiscal relations challenges.
  • 14-August-2020

    English

    Housing for all in India

    Housing is key for well-being and for spatial and social mobility. In India, the housing market is characterised by excess demand for affordable dwellings, a small rental market and an oversupply of high-end housing, especially in urban areas.
  • 14-April-2020

    English

    Synthesising good practices in fiscal federalism - Key recommendations from 15 years of country surveys

    The design of intergovernmental fiscal relations can help to ensure that tax and spending powers are assigned in a way to promote sustainable and inclusive economic growth. Decentralisation can enable sub-central governments to provide better public services for households and firms, while it can also make intergovernmental frameworks more complex, harming equity. The challenges of fiscal federalism are multi-faceted and involve difficult trade-offs. This synthesis paper consolidates much of the OECD’s work on fiscal federalism over the past 15 years, with a particular focus on OECD Economic Surveys. The paper identifies a range of good practices on the design of country policies and institutions related strengthening fiscal capacity delineating responsibilities across evels of government and improving intergovernmental co-ordination.
  • 10-January-2020

    English

    India 2020 Energy Policy Review

    The International Energy Agency (IEA) regularly conducts in-depth peer reviews of the energy policies of its member and association countries. This process supports energy policy development and encourages the exchange of international best practices and experiences. This first in-depth review of India’s energy policies examines the country’s achievements in developing its energy sector as well as the challenges it faces in ensuring a sustainable energy future. With an impressive track record of expanding access to electricity and clean cooking for its citizens and swiftly deploying renewable energy technologies, India offers an inspiring example for many countries around the world. This report provides insights into the rise of India in global energy markets. It analyses the full breadth of the country’s energy sector and presents recommendations for strengthening energy policies in various areas. These include advancing energy market reforms, notably in power and gas markets; integrating higher shares of variable renewables; addressing air and water quality; and reducing vulnerability to the impacts of climate change.
  • 24-October-2019

    English

    Making Dispute Resolution More Effective – MAP Peer Review Report, India (Stage 1) - Inclusive Framework on BEPS: Action 14

    Under Action 14, countries have committed to implement a minimum standard to strengthen the effectiveness and efficiency of the mutual agreement procedure (MAP). The MAP is included in Article 25 of the OECD Model Tax Convention and commits countries to endeavour to resolve disputes related to the interpretation and application of tax treaties. The Action 14 Minimum Standard has been translated into specific terms of reference and a methodology for the peer review and monitoring process. The minimum standard is complemented by a set of best practices.The peer review process is conducted in two stages. Stage 1 assesses countries against the terms of reference of the minimum standard according to an agreed schedule of review. Stage 2 focuses on monitoring the follow-up of any recommendations resulting from jurisdictions' stage 1 peer review report. This report reflects the outcome of the stage 1 peer review of the implementation of the Action 14 Minimum Standard by India.
  • 24-July-2019

    English

    Energy Security in ASEAN +6

    The ASEAN+6 group comprises the ten countries of the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) and six other countries in the Asia-Pacific region: Australia, the People’s Republic of China ('China'), India, Japan, Korea and New Zealand. This group includes the world’s fastest-growing and most dynamic energy consumption centres. They are led by China, India and ASEAN, the emerging Asian economies, whose share of global energy demand is expected to reach 40% by 2040, up from only 20% in 2000. Energy demand in the ASEAN+6 countries is set to take diverse paths. In India, for example, low per capita energy use and a high population growth rate indicate the potential for substantial energy demand growth. In Japan, by contrast, a declining population and increasing energy efficiencies are contributing to a continuous fall in energy consumption. Countries of the region also differ in their natural resource wealth and their levels of socio-economic and technological development. These countries share common challenges, however, in ensuring the security of their energy supplies. Given their shared geographical location, they could help one another meet these energy security challenges by deepening regional co-operation. This report starts by giving an overview of the energy security issues of the region. Subsequent chapters cover the key energy sectors of oil, natural gas and electricity. They identify the main energy security issues, including a high level of vulnerability to natural disasters and heavy dependence on imports of fossil fuels, which must pass through major global chokepoints. The report provides policy advice, primarily for the region’s developing countries, based on the emergency response systems and accumulated experience in energy security of the International Energy Agency and its member countries.
  • 10-July-2019

    English

    Economic Outlook for Southeast Asia, China and India 2019 – Update - Responding to Environmental Hazards in Cities

    The Economic Outlook for Southeast Asia, China and India is a bi-annual publication on regional economic growth, development and regional integration in Emerging Asia. It focuses on the economic conditions of Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) member countries: Brunei Darussalam, Cambodia, Indonesia, Lao PDR, Malaysia, Myanmar, the Philippines, Singapore, Thailand and Viet Nam. It also addresses relevant economic issues in China and India to fully reflect economic developments in the region.The update of the Outlook comprises three main parts, each highlighting a particular dimension of recent economic developments in the region. The first part presents the regional economic monitor, depicting the economic outlook and macroeconomic challenges in the region. The second and third parts consist of special thematic chapters addressing a major issue facing the region. This update focuses on smart cities, discussing in particular smart city strategies and urban environmental risks.
  • 26-March-2019

    English

    Women working in the rooftop solar sector - A look at India's transition to clean energy

    India’s rooftop solar targets represent a major opportunity for sustainable development and for women’s employment. While India has shown a strong commitment towards a clean energy transition through its renewable electricity installation target for 2022, deployment of rooftop solar technology has been slow. With the potential to create a large number of jobs in general, the rooftop solar sector also generates the types of jobs attractive to highly skilled women in particular, a largely untapped pool in India. Our analysis, based on a survey of rooftop solar companies as well as qualitative interviews with women currently employed in the sector, seeks to identify opportunities for better gender balance at work, as well as barriers to achieving it. Women currently account for only 11% of the workforce in the companies we surveyed. Participation of women is particularly low in roles involving frequent travel and a required onsite presence at project sites. We recommend that the government enhance policies to scale up the rooftop solar market by addressing the general challenges facing this sector, and introduce gender-targeted policies to enable and encourage companies to advance actions that effectively support women’s employment in this sector.
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