Prestations et questions sociales

  • 4-April-2024


    Mapping well-being in France

    This paper provides two innovative measures of well-being for French communes, namely a well-being aggregate index and an index of multi-dimensional poverty. These measures provide an unprecedented view of well-being at the local level by using 7 of the 11 key dimensions of the OECD Better Life Initiative (income, unemployment, housing, education, civic engagement, health and environmental quality). The results show that joint deprivation in at least five dimensions of well-being is starkly concentrated among 316 communes, representing as many as 5.2 million inhabitants (7.7% of the French population).
  • 29-March-2024


    The art of living well - Cultural participation and well-being

    This paper first presents a meta-analysis of the causal impact of cultural participation on well-being. The meta-analysis classifies the literature according to the strength of the evidence available and various types of cultural activities. Secondly, this paper uses data from time use surveys from Canada, France, Italy, the United Kingdom, and the United States to study individuals’ emotional responses to a series of daily activities. This is then used as a basis for an empirical assessment of the drivers of time allocation across different activities, showing that expectations of future well-being are one of the reasons why individuals decide to engage in cultural activities. Furthermore, the model helps explain why cultural participation, in spite of being one of the most enjoyable human activities, is also the least undertaken. We show that heterogeneity of preferences results in a strong selection effect in available statistics.
  • 16-juin-2023


    Évaluation du programme national de lutte contre le tabagisme en France

    Le tabac est responsable de 13% des décès en France et est l'une des principales causes de maladies non transmissibles (MNT), telles que les cancers, les maladies respiratoires et cardiovasculaires. Pour renforcer sa politique de lutte antitabac, la France a mis en place un train de mesures entre 2016 et 2020 comprenant une augmentation progressive sur trois ans du prix des produits du tabac -correspondant à une augmentation de 41% du prix du paquet de cigarettes le plus vendu, le paquet neutre, une campagne annuelle de sevrage (#MoisSansTabac), et le remboursement des substituts nicotiniques. Ce rapport évalue l'impact sanitaire et économique du train de mesures de lutte antitabac, à l'aide du modèle de microsimulation de l'OCDE pour la planification stratégique de la santé publique pour les MNT (SPHeP-NCD), et il fournit une analyse de la charge du tabac en France et une évaluation économique de la campagne de marketing social pour le sevrage #MoisSansTabac.
  • 14-juin-2023


    Lutter contre l’homophobie et la transphobie à l’école

    Cette note de synthèse présente les résultats d’une expérimentation inédite que l’OCDE a menée en France (région parisienne), de 2018 à 2022, auprès de plus de 10 000 élèves âgés de 13 à 18 ans pour mesurer l’impact des interventions de SOS homophobie, la principale association française luttant contre les discriminations et les violences anti-LGBTI+

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  • 30-March-2023


    Not lost in translation - The implications of machine translation technologies for language professionals and for broader society

    The paper discusses the implications of recent advances in artificial intelligence for knowledge workers, focusing on possible complementarities and substitution between machine translation tools and language professionals. The emergence of machine translation tools could enhance social welfare through enhanced opportunities for inter-language communication but also create new threats because of persisting low levels of accuracy and quality in the translation output. The paper uses data on online job vacancies to map the evolution of the demand for language professionals between 2015 and 2019 in 10 countries and illustrates the set of skills that are considered important by employers seeking to hire language professionals through job vacancies posted on line.
  • 27-March-2023


    The impact of AI on the workplace: Main findings from the OECD AI surveys of employers and workers

    New OECD surveys of employers and workers in the manufacturing and finance sectors of seven countries shed new light on the impact that Artificial Intelligence has on the workplace —an under-researched area to date due to lack of data. The findings suggest that both workers and their employers are generally very positive about the impact of AI on performance and working conditions. However, there are also concerns, including about job loss—an issue that should be closely monitored. The surveys also indicate that, while many workers trust their employers when it comes to the implementation of AI in the workplace, more can be done to improve trust. In particular, the surveys show that both training and worker consultation are associated with better outcomes for workers.
  • 15-November-2022


    Swimming skills around the world - Evidence on inequalities in life skills across and within countries

    Being able to swim empowers individuals to make choices, have agency, and be free to choose core aspects of their life, such as working safely on or near water. It is also associated with lifelong health benefits and reduces the risk of drowning. Using data from the Lloyd’s Register Foundation World Risk Poll 2019, this paper provides the first global estimates of adults’ ability to swim without assistance. Individuals in high-income countries are considerably more likely to report being able to swim without assistance than individuals in low-income countries. Disparities also exist within countries. In particular, women are less likely to be able to swim without assistance than men in virtually all countries, birth cohorts, and levels of education. Investing in reducing inequalities in life skills, such as swimming, can foster economic development and empowerment, especially in light of threats, such as climate change.
  • 22-December-2020


    How reliable are social safety nets? - Value and accessibility in situations of acute economic need

    Social protection systems use a range of entitlement criteria. First-tier support typically requires contributions or past employment in many countries, while safety net benefits are granted on the basis of need. In a context of volatile and uncertain labour markets, careful and continuous monitoring of the effectiveness of income support is a key input into an evidence-based policy process. This paper proposes a novel empirical method for monitoring the accessibility and levels of safety net benefits. It focusses on minimum-income benefits (MIB) and other non-contributory transfers and relies on data on the amounts of cash support that individuals in need receive in practice. Results show that accessibility and benefit levels differ enormously across countries – for instance, in 2015/16, more than four out of five low-income workless one-person households received MIB in Australia, France and the United Kingdom, compared to only one in five in Greece, Italy and Korea, three countries that have since sought to strengthen aspects of safety-net provisions.
  • 24-October-2018


    Working Together for Local Integration of Migrants and Refugees in Paris

    Of the requests for asylum in France made in 2016, more than 10 000 applications were made by people in Paris and were made in the context of a rising number of refugees and asylum seekers since 2015. This increase has stirred a debate in France around its 'universal' migrant integration model, which aspires to equal treatment for all and for which the main tool has been 'Integration Contract' for migrants. At all levels of government, measures are now being designed for 'reinforced' support for migrants, helping them to better integrate socially and to better access the  job market; these measures are tailored for all persons with a residency permit, in particular for refugees. This case study examines the City of Paris and its ambitions to successfully integrate its new inhabitants. The municipality sets aside dedicated resources for this and actively involves French citizens in implementing activities to foster social cohesion. The city is still attracting new migrants while socio-economic disparities and segregation remain marked in Paris and its region, in a context of limited emergency accommodation facilities for migrants and a tight housing market. More can be done to improve coherence across levels of government and among partners, in order to prevent fragmented service delivery and to improve how the impact of integration programmes is measured.
  • 20-novembre-2017


    Le recrutement des travailleurs immigrés: France 2017

    Cette étude a pour objectif d’analyser les politiques publiques françaises en matière de recrutement de main-d’oeuvre immigrée depuis l’étranger et d'évaluer dans quelle mesure la migration économique répond aux besoins du marché du travail. L'immigration professionnelle étant de faible ampleur en France, une attention particulière est également portée aux changements de statut, notamment d’anciens étudiants, ainsi qu'aux régularisations pour motif économique, dont la persistance pourrait témoigner de besoins de main-d'oeuvre non satisfaits. Le fonctionnement des dispositifs actuels d'immigration professionnelle en France – permanente, temporaire et saisonnière – est examiné, en particulier l'efficacité des tests du marché du travail et des listes de métiers en tension. Le nouveau dispositif pour l'immigration qualifiée, le passeport talent, est également analysé pour évaluer sa capacité à remédier aux écueils légaux et opérationels identifiés dans l'étude et à renforcer l'attractivité de la France pour les talents étrangers.
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