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Publications


  • 6-July-2021

    English

    Enhancing digital diffusion for higher productivity in Spain

    The increased adoption of digital technologies has been transforming the Spanish economy. The COVID-19 crisis is expected to speed up this process. The new digital strategy, ‘Digital Spain 2025’, features a number of ambitious objectives in a timely manner. There is a need to promote digital diffusion across the country by developing communication infrastructure further, while addressing the digital divide across regions and ensuring digital security. Addressing key bottlenecks, such as people’s skills, through education policies at every level, would enable the use of digital technologies and boost productivity growth. This would help in particular laggard firms and low-skilled people, making the benefits of digitalisation shared by all. In parallel, R&D should be enhanced to lift the capacity of firms to adopt and use digital technologies effectively, resulting in improving their business models and products. Finally, business dynamism should be revitalised to encourage risk taking among firms, thus facilitating digital diffusion, while ensuring an efficient allocation of capital.
  • 6-July-2021

    English

    Gender equality and fragility

    Gender equality and fragility are inextricably linked. Addressing issues of gender inequality in fragile contexts requires systematic approaches that work through the complexity of fragility. It requires contextual understanding of social norms, political sensitivities, environmental concerns, and other risks that continue to perpetuate fragility. As part of the 2020 States of Fragility series, this working paper unpacks the deep‑rooted linkages between gender inequalities and fragility; provides an analysis of gender within the current OECD Fragility Framework; and looks to areas of improvement for understanding and addressing these inequalities.
  • 5-July-2021

    English

    Competitiveness in South East Europe 2021 - A Policy Outlook

    The future sustainable economic development and well-being of citizens in South East Europe depend on greater economic competitiveness. Reinforcing the region’s economic potential in a post-COVID-19 context requires a holistic, inclusive and growth‑oriented approach to policy making. Against the backdrop of enhanced European Union (EU) accession prospects and a drive towards deeper regional integration, the governments of the six Western Balkan (WB6) economies have demonstrated a renewed commitment to enacting policy reforms. The third edition of Competitiveness in South East Europe: A Policy Outlook comprehensively assesses policy reforms in the WB6 economies across 16 policy dimensions crucial to their competitiveness. It leverages a highly participatory assessment process, which brought together the views of OECD experts, WB6 policy makers and local non-governmental stakeholders to create a balanced and realistic depiction of their performance. The report seeks to provide WB6 policy makers with a multi-dimensional benchmarking tool, enabling them to compare performance against regional peers as well as OECD good practices, and to design future policies based on rich evidence and actionable policy recommendations. Economy-specific profiles complement the regional assessment for the first time in this edition of Competitiveness in South East Europe: A Policy Outlook, and provide each WB6 economy with an in-depth analysis of their competitive potential as well as policy recommendations tailored to their specific challenges to inform their structural economic reforms and sustainable development agenda.
  • 5-July-2021

    English

    Migration in Asia - What skills for the future?

    The world is increasingly facing a technologically changing employment landscape and such changes are directly affecting the future demand for skills. For regional economies built on labour migration, the impending changes will affect migrants and their families, their countries of origin and the recruitment systems they are attached to – and ultimately disrupt the development benefits of migration. This paper investigates how the future of the employment landscape will affect migration within the Abu Dhabi Dialogue, a regional consultative process for migration in Asia. It investigates the impending changes in the demand for skills in countries of destination, how such changes will affect migration processes and whether countries of origin are ready for the changes. It provides recommendations on how regional consultative processes can foster dialogue between key actors from both countries of origin and destination to better navigate future changes and ensure a smooth transition.
  • 5-July-2021

    English

    Measuring smart city performance in COVID-19 times: Lessons from Korea and OECD countries - Proceedings from the 2nd OECD Roundtable on Smart Cities and Inclusive Growth

    At a time when many cities and countries are including a smart recovery component in their strategies to rebound from the COVID-19 crisis, the simple presence of digital technologies does not mean that benefits automatically reach everyone. Measuring smart city performance is therefore critical in order to deliver policies with greater efficiency and effectiveness, identify cost-effective solutions to deliver public services, improve government accountability vis-à-vis citizens and track progress and impact. The proposed OECD Smart City Measurement Framework encompasses not only the uptake of digitalisation in cities but also how digital innovation can improve well-being outcomes, inclusion, sustainability and resilience. Furthermore, it focuses on urban residents both as recipients or users and as designers of smart cities. Building on the 2nd OECD Roundtable on Smart Cities and Inclusive Growth, the OECD will now begin to operationalise and further develop the OECD Smart City Measurement Framework.
  • 2-July-2021

    English

    Analysing sectoral capital flows - Covariates, co-movements, and controls

    This paper assembles a comprehensive sectoral capital flows dataset for 64 advanced and emerging economies from 2000-18. This includes direct, portfolio and other investments to and from five sectors: central banks (CB), general government (GG), banks (BKs), non-financial corporates (NFCs) and other financial corporates (OFCs) and a corresponding dataset on capital controls imposed on these sectors. The paper uses this data to examine the usefulness of a sectoral approach in assessing capital flow covariates, co-movements, and the effectiveness of capital controls. The findings show that: 1) private sectoral flows have varying sensitivities to global financial conditions and different cyclicality with respect to output growth. For instance, unlike other flows, NFCs respond to global commodity prices but not global risk aversion and, unlike banks, OFCs cut foreign investment in periods of domestic investment; 2) co-movements of resident and non-resident OFC sectoral flows add to the observed positive correlation between gross inflows and outflows; and, 3) the tightening of capital controls on NFCs and OFCs appear effective in reducing the volume of flows to these sectors.
  • 1-July-2021

    English

    The state of higher education - One year in to the COVID-19 pandemic

    The higher education experience was markedly different than usual for those enrolling during the COVID-19 pandemic. Higher education institutions of all kinds found their instructional methods profoundly disrupted by the closure of their physical campuses, and the crisis exposed the urgent need for policy makers and institutional leaders to adjust their established educational and policy models. This report looks at comparative statistics the OECD has collected across a number of education systems to track developments in the higher education sector throughout the pandemic.
  • 1-July-2021

    English

    Measuring What Matters for Child Well-being and Policies

    To design, implement and monitor effective child well-being policies, policy-makers need data that better capture children’s lives, measure what is important to them and detect emerging problems and vulnerabilities early on. Despite improvements in recent decades, there are still important gaps in both national and cross-national child data. Countries can achieve progress if the right actions are taken. Measuring What Matters for Child Well-being and Policies lays the groundwork for improved child well-being measurement and better data to inform better child well-being policies. It outlines an 'aspirational' framework for child well-being measurement, setting out which aspects of children’s lives should be measured, and how, to better monitor child well-being. It also outlines priorities for child data development and identifies key data gaps, all with the aim of motivating improvements in child data infrastructures.
  • 30-June-2021

    English

    Education in Brazil - An International Perspective

    The Education in Brazil: An International Perspective report was developed drawing on internationally comparative data on education in Brazil, in particular the extensive range of data collected by the OECD through its surveys. The experiences of other countries and how they have tackled challenges similar to those now faced by Brazil, along with the insights from consultations with key national experts, also inform the analysis. The report benchmarks with OECD and a set of comparator emerging economies the whole education system from early childhood education and care to tertiary education, focusing on: Access and participation Learning and labour market outcomes The allocation, use and efficiency of financial, human and material resources School leaders, teachers and teaching The school climate and student well-being The report highlights the many strengths of Brazil’s education system, identifies the main challenges ahead and offers policy implications for the future.
  • 30-June-2021

    English

    The Future of Corporate Governance in Capital Markets Following the COVID-19 Crisis

    This report provides an evidence-based overview of developments in capital markets globally leading up to the COVID-19 crisis. It then documents the impact of the crisis on the use of capital markets and the introduction of temporary corporate governance measures. Although the structural effects of the crisis on capital markets and its interplay with corporate governance remain to be fully understood, this report presents trends that can be used to shape policies that will support the recovery and formulates key policy messages that will guide the upcoming review of the G20/OECD Principles of Corporate Governance. The report emphasises that the road to recovery will require well-functioning capital markets that can allocate substantial financial resources for long-term investments. It also highlights the need to adapt corporate governance rules and practices to the post-COVID-19 reality, particularly in areas such as increased ownership concentration; environmental, social and governance (ESG) risk management; digitalisation; insolvency; audit quality and creditor rights.
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