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Kazakhstan


  • 30-April-2024

    English

    National Contact Point for Responsible Business Conduct Peer Reviews: Kazakhstan 2024

    This document is the peer review report of the National Contact Point (NCP) of Kazakhstan. The objectives of NCP peer reviews are to assess that the NCP is functioning and operating in accordance with the core effectiveness criteria set out in the implementation procedures; to identify the NCP’s strengths and possibilities for improvement; to make recommendations for improvement; and to serve as a learning tool for all NCPs involved. The peer review of the NCP of Kazakhstan was conducted by a team of reviewers from the NCPs of Egypt, France, and Korea, along with representatives of the OECD Secretariat.
  • 3-April-2024

    English

    OECD-GVH Regional Centre for Competition in Budapest

    OECD-GVH Regional Centre for Competition in Budapest website

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  • 15-February-2024

    English

    OECD Review of the Corporate Governance of State-Owned Enterprises in Kazakhstan

    The Kazakh government has undertaken crucial legal and regulatory reforms to improve the governance and performance of its state-owned enterprises (SOEs), but further reforms are needed. This review describes and assesses the corporate governance framework of the Kazakh SOE sector against the OECD Guidelines on Corporate Governance of State-Owned Enterprises. It makes recommendations to help the Kazakh authorities reform their state-owned sector and align the exercise of state ownership and the governance of SOEs with international best practices.
  • 1-February-2024

    English

    Eastern and South‐Eastern Europe Competition Update: OECD/Hungary Centre Newsletter

    Published regularly, this newsletter reports on the activities of the OECD/GVH Regional Centre for Competition. It provides information about recent cases and developments in the participating economies in Eastern and South-Eastern Europe.

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  • 13-December-2023

    English

    Realising the Potential of the Middle Corridor

    Russia’s full-scale invasion of Ukraine and the ensuing sanctions greatly complicated overland freight transport between Europe and China via the so-called Northern Corridor, which runs through the Russian Federation. This has prompted renewed attention to the development of the Trans-Caspian International Transport Route, a multimodal route running through Kazakhstan, Azerbaijan, Georgia, and Türkiye – the so-called 'Middle Corridor'. The present report looks at the Middle Corridor’s potential and at the challenges that must be overcome to realise it, drawing on the perspective of relevant private-sector actors in the four Middle Corridor countries. Governments along the corridor have invested heavily to improve transport infrastructure, yet important bottlenecks remain due to the geography of the route, the number of border crossings and the lack of regional trade integration. This study, based on surveys from and interviews with the private sector, maps and sequences main reform priorities in relation to regional integration, infrastructure, trade facilitation and supra-national coordination. It suggests that the primary aim should be to develop the corridor not solely as a transit route for actors from outside the region but as an engine of integration and trade integration in Central Asia and the South Caucasus.
  • 4-December-2023

    English

    Multi-level governance and subnational finance in Asia and the Pacific

    Subnational governments in Asia and the Pacific are key providers of the public services and infrastructure required to achieve the Sustainable Development Goals. Given this role, it is essential that policymakers and development partners understand and support the effective functioning of multi-level governance structures and subnational government finances across the region. This joint OECD-ADB report provides a comprehensive overview of subnational governments across Asia and the Pacific. It covers over 467,000 subnational governments from 26 countries, which represent 53% of the world’s population and 40% of global GDP. On average in 2020, subnational governments in the region accounted for 29% of total public expenditure (8.8% of GDP), 35% of total public revenue (8.5% of GDP) and 38% of public investment (2% of GDP). Harnessing unique data from the 3rd edition of the OECD-UCLG World Observatory on Subnational Government Finance and Investment, the analysis highlights how decentralisation and territorial reforms have reconfigured the structures and finances of subnational governments in the region. It covers a range of topics including fiscal rules, financial management capacity, priority-based budgeting, asset management and the use of public-private partnerships.
  • 17-May-2023

    English

    Insights on the Business Climate in Kazakhstan

    The global push for more sustainable and less-carbon intensive economic models has increased the salience of Kazakhstan’s long-standing diversification agenda. That this agenda remains only partially fulfilled reflects a number of issues that affect the conditions for investment, innovation and entrepreneurship. Elaborating on feedback garnered through a small, focussed survey of foreign firms in Kazakhstan, this report provides new insights into private-sector perceptions of the ongoing reform process and in doing so draws attention to some of the most pressing issues facing policymakers and business.
  • 17-May-2023

    English

    Improving Framework Conditions for the Digital Transformation of Businesses in Kazakhstan

    In recent years, Kazakhstan has developed a comprehensive digital government system and begun to create the legal and regulatory conditions for the digital transformation of the country’s economy. The digitalisation of the private sector requires further improvements in framework conditions, such as reliable access to broadband services, quality and affordability of networks, and digital security for businesses. Based on recent OECD work on digital framework conditions, this report examines the legal and operational environment that is holding back the digital transformation of private firms in Kazakhstan. The report suggests three sets of actions: (1) addressing the remaining Internet quality and connectivity gaps, notably by mobilising the regional public sector to improve the quality and density of networks, and by expanding the inclusion of the private sector in the policy-making process; (2) improving competition in, and the investment attractiveness of, the telecom sector by setting-up an independent national telecom regulator, and by developing a targeted investment attraction strategy to prepare for deployment of next-generation communication networks; and (3) adapting the regulatory and policy framework for firms adapting to new digital challenges and raising their awareness of digital security.
  • 26-April-2023

    English

    Aid at a glance charts

    These ready-made tables and charts provide for snapshot of aid (Official Development Assistance) for all DAC Members as well as recipient countries and territories. Summary reports by regions (Africa, America, Asia, Europe, Oceania) and the world are also available.

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  • 13-October-2022

    English

    Kazakhstan 2022 Energy Sector Review

    This in-depth review of the energy policies of Kazakhstan follows the same format used by the International Energy Agency (IEA) to review member countries. It was conducted under the auspices of the EU4Energy programme, which is being implemented by the IEA and the European Union, along with the Energy Community Secretariat and the Energy Charter Secretariat. Kazakhstan has made ambitious commitments to reduce greenhouse gas emissions and increase the role of renewables in its energy supply, but dependence on large reserves of inexpensive domestic coal and a lack of flexible generating capacity make these a challenge. Oil continues to provide much of the country’s export earnings and government revenue, while many oil-importing countries have pledged to reduce consumption of fossil fuels, and most oil exports currently transit the Russian Federation. Low domestic energy prices are a social priority for the government, but have made it difficult to promote energy efficiency and stimulate commercial production of gas for the domestic market. This report assesses the energy sector and related challenges facing Kazakhstan and proposes policy recommendations to improve sector governance, energy efficiency and security of supply.
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