Share

Publications


  • 8-July-2021

    English

    A new approach to skills mismatch

    Skills mismatch - the sub-optimal use of an individual's skills in their occupation - can be a source of dissatisfaction for workers and a brake for productivity growth. In our view, a difference in the level of skills within an occupation is not sufficient to infer that a skills mismatch exists. Since skills-mismatch is the result of a disparity between the supply and demand of labour, the quantifying of skills-mismatch must therefore be based on the mechanisms involved in this disparity. We propose to include in our measurement the level of education and field of study, which are key markers of an individual's skill level in the labour market. This makes it possible to identify, among individuals whose skill level differs from others within an occupation, those whose training profile can (or cannot) explain this situation. Through using the OECD PIAAC 2012 survey, this paper first identifies with data for France, individuals who present an apparent skills mismatch according to the framework proposed. Following an international comparison of 'apparent skills mismatch rates', we conclude this study by observing how the different groups identified differ in terms of how they perceive their employment situation as well as their individual characteristics.
  • 8-July-2021

    English

    Employee training and firm performance - Evidence from ESF grant applications

    As work changes, firm-provided training may become more relevant. However, there is little causal evidence about the effects of training on firms. This paper studies a large training grants programme in Portugal, supported by the European Social Fund, contrasting firms that received the grants and firms that also applied but were unsuccessful. Combining several rich data sets, we compare many potential outcomes of these firms, while following them over several years both before and after the grant decision. Our difference-in-differences models estimate significant positive effects on take up (training hours and expenditure), with limited deadweight; and that such additional training led to increased sales, value added, employment, productivity, and exports (although not profits). These effects tend to be of at least 5% and, in some cases, 10% or more, and are robust in multiple dimensions.
  • 8-July-2021

    English

    Overcoming evidence gaps on food systems

    Food systems are expected to provide food security and nutrition, to contribute to the livelihoods of millions, and to do so in an environmentally sustainable way. The broad outlines of these challenges are clear, and in many cases evidence exists on how better policies can improve the performance of food systems. But there are considerable gaps in data and evidence. This paper provides a panoramic overview of different types of evidence gaps on food systems and their causes, and makes the case that better evidence is needed to enable better policies. At the same time, evidence will never be complete. Policy makers and the research community thus need to adopt a pragmatic approach, focusing on where better evidence can make the biggest difference.
  • 8-July-2021

    English

    OECD Integrity Review of the State of Mexico - Enabling a Culture of Integrity

    This review analyses the Anti-corruption Policy of the State of Mexico and Municipalities, highlighting its strengths (i.e. inclusion and rigour) as well as the need to include specific integrity risks (i.e. policy capture) to make it more comprehensive. The review analyses how the State Government could develop ownership of ethical rules and values to effectively influence public officials’ behaviour. It also assesses the internal control and risk management scheme of the State of Mexico, providing an overview of its good practices and weak points. Finally, it examines the role of the administrative liability regime for state public officials and its effectiveness in ensuring accountability. It describes the legal framework for administrative responsibilities, which provides a comprehensive and solid foundation for enforcing integrity rules and standards, but requires support to improve implementation.
  • 8-July-2021

    English

    The return on human (STEM) capital in Belgium

    Whilst overall productivity growth is stalling, firms at the frontier are still able to capture the benefits of the newest technologies and business practices. This paper uses linked employer-employee data covering all Belgian firms over a period of almost 20 years and investigates the differences in human capital between highly productive firms and less productive firms. We find a clear positive correlation between the share of high-skilled and STEM workers in a firm's workforce and its productivity. We obtain elasticities of 0.20 to 0.70 for a firm's productivity as a function of the share of high-skilled workers. For STEM (science, technology, engineering, mathematics) workers, of all skill levels, we find elasticities of 0.20 to 0.45. More importantly, the elasticity of STEM workers is increasing over time, whereas the elasticity of high-skilled workers is decreasing. This is possibly linked with the increasing number of tertiary education graduates and at the same time increased difficulties in filling STEM-related vacancies. Specifically, for high-skilled STEM workers in the manufacturing sector, the productivity gain can be as much as 4 times higher than the gain from hiring additional high-skilled non-STEM workers. To ensure that government efforts to increase the adoption of the latest technologies and business practices within firms lead to sustainable productivity gains, such actions should be accompanied by measures to increase the supply and mobility of human (STEM) capital. Without a proper supply of skills, firms will not be able to reap the full benefits of the digital revolution.
  • 8-July-2021

    English

    World Energy Investment 2021

    This year’s edition of the World Energy Investment report presents the latest data and analysis of how energy investment flows are recovering from the shock of the Covid-19 pandemic, including full-year estimates of the outlook for 2021. It examines how investors are assessing risks and opportunities across all areas of fuel and electricity supply, efficiency and research and development, against a backdrop of a recovery in global energy demand as well as strengthened pledges from governments and the private sector to address climate change. The report focuses on two key questions: Whether the growing momentum among governments and investors to accelerate clean energy transitions is translating into an actual uptick in capital expenditures on clean energy projects. Whether the energy investment response to the economic crisis caused by the Covid-19 pandemic will be broad-based or if some sectors, geographies and vulnerable parts of the world’s population will be left behind.
  • 8-July-2021

    English

    Azerbaijan 2021 Energy Policy Review

    Oil and gas continue to dominate Azerbaijan’s economy and provide most of its export and government revenue. While these resources have sharply raised the country’s living standards since the late 1990s and remain plentiful, the long-term outlook for this economic model is uncertain. Oil production is declining and major oil and gas importing countries have pledged to reduce greenhouse gas emissions to net-zero by mid-century, implying little demand three decades from now for oil or gas without carbon capture and storage. This report assesses the energy sector and related economic challenges facing Azerbaijan. It proposes several ways to respond by increasing the efficiency and diversity of domestic energy supply and use. The overriding recommendation is a gradual transition to competitive markets with significant private sector participation and energy prices that reflect the cost of production. The withdrawal of subsidies should be accompanied by support measures for those most in need. Such a transition would attract new market entrants and new investments, helping to develop Azerbaijan’s significant solar and wind potential, and limiting greenhouse gas emissions. These recommendations are in line with efforts already underway in Azerbaijan. Prompted by the oil price shock in 2014-15, the government has recently drafted proposals for electricity and gas market reforms, as well as laws on energy efficiency and renewable energy. The country’s first specific energy strategy is also nearing completion. The report encourages Azerbaijan to move swiftly to adopt all these proposals and implement them effectively to ensure secure and sustainable energy in the future.
  • 8-July-2021

    English

    New evidence on intangibles, diffusion and productivity

    This paper presents new evidence on the impact of intangible capital on productivity dispersion within industries. It first shows that rise in productivity dispersion after 2000 is more pronounced in intangible-intensive industries; then analyses the link between intangible capital intensity and productivity dispersion both at the top and at the bottom of the productivity distribution, and in different industries. The findings suggest that industries that have experienced a stronger increase in intangible investment have also seen a steeper rise in productivity dispersion both at the top and at the bottom of the productivity distribution. While the results at the top seem to be associated with the scalability of intangible capital – which is likely to disproportionally benefit high-productivity firms and incumbents – dispersion at the bottom appears to be linked to complementarities between intangible investment and factors like digital intensity, trade openness and venture capital.
  • 7-July-2021

    English

    Bringing Household Services Out of the Shadows - Formalising Non-Care Work in and Around the House

    Despite years of growth in the number of women in paid work, gender roles in unpaid housework have remained remarkably rigid. Unpaid housework can be outsourced to non-care household service providers, such as cleaners or housekeepers, however, high prices, a substantial tax burden and a lack of easy access impose barriers to greater formalisation of the household service sector. With the aim of increasing work-life balance for households, in particular for women in employment, and reducing the wide-ranging practice of undeclared employment, a number of OECD countries have implemented policies to formalise and boost the provision of non-care household services. This report illustrates the importance of the non-care household service sector and reviews international approaches in formalising the non-care household service market, ranging from providing tax incentives or granting social vouchers, to identify good practice. To highlight the potential economic gains that could follow from easing the housework burden, the report also estimates the economic value of unpaid housework provided by men and women.
  • 7-July-2021

    English

    Ensuring the Adequacy of Funding Arrangements for Decommissioning and Radioactive Waste Management

    The world’s nuclear power reactors are ageing, with the majority approaching the end of their planned operational lifetimes in the coming years. The adequacy of funding for decommissioning and radioactive waste management (RMW) thus increasingly commands the attention of decision-makers. This report by the OECD Nuclear Energy Agency (NEA) combines a solid conceptual framework with the insights from twelve case studies of NEA member countries to propose a new approach to the adequacy of funding that is both robust and flexible. Current funding systems in NEA countries are overall adequate. The challenges ahead however are formidable: decommissioning and RWM are moving from design to implementation, returns on assets are low and societal preferences can evolve. The very long-term nature of the solutions, in particular for radioactive waste disposal, is also not easily compatible with the economic lifetimes of the original liability holders. This requires that all elements of the system – accrued funds, expected future returns, the lifetimes of nuclear power plants, the expected costs of politically sustainable technical solutions and the liabilities for residual risks – are reviewed and realigned at regular intervals. Complementing existing approaches with such a circular approach will strengthen funding arrangements and ensure their adequacy for decades to come.
  • << < 1 | 2 | 3 | 4 | 5 | 6 | 7 | 8 | 9 | 10 > >>