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Publications


  • 12-July-2021

    English

    Main Findings from the 2020 Risks that Matter Survey

    The COVID-19 pandemic has spurred perhaps the largest expansion of social protection systems in seventy years. Yet many people are still deeply affected by the crisis and are calling for even more help. Drawing on 25 000 responses across 25 OECD countries, the 2020 Risks that Matter survey finds that people are worried about keeping their jobs, paying the bills and staying healthy. Almost seven out of ten respondents say that their government should be doing more to ensure their economic and social security, and many are willing to pay more in taxes to support this. The perspectives presented in this report offer important lessons for how to expand and reform social protection as our societies and economies slowly start to recover from the pandemic.
  • 12-July-2021

    English

    Regions and globalisation - An original approach to regional internationalisation and its application to the case of France

    The COVID-19 crisis demonstrated that local authorities are on the front line when it comes to dealing with the various effects of globalisation. In France, as in OECD countries in general, responsibility for producing and implementing strategies that combine economic development, innovation and internationalisation falls to the regional level. This summary document covers the main lessons learned from OECD policy analysis and statistical work carried out on French regions’ internationalisation. It proposes an original methodology for assessing the position of regions in globalisation and applies this to France, comparing statistical observations with the internationalisation strategies adopted by French the regions. Also presented are multi-level governance measures in which the actors of regional internationalisation are involved.
  • 12-July-2021

    English

    The Potential Role of Carbon Pricing in Thailand’s Power Sector

    Thailand is committed to playing its part in the international efforts aimed at addressing climate issues. As it is for most countries, the power sector in Thailand is among the largest emitters, accounting for 38% of energy-related CO2 emissions. Hence, reducing the emissions from this sector is fundamental in reducing the country’s total emissions. This report explores the potential role of carbon pricing in driving emissions reduction in power generation and supporting a clean energy transition in the country. Building on the understanding of the current power market structure and future development plans, this report leverages on the results from in-depth 2030 power production cost modelling to assess the potential impacts of carbon pricing on power generation dispatch and investment, and the resulting implications on emissions and costs. The recommendations arising from the assessment suggest that carbon pricing can play an active role in reducing the emissions from Thailand's power sector, with measures to mitigate the potential costs and distributional impacts.
  • 12-July-2021

    English

    Lithuania 2021 Energy Policy Review

    The International Energy Agency (IEA) regularly conducts in-depth peer reviews of the energy policies of its member, partner and accession countries. This process supports energy policy development and encourages the exchange of international best practices and experiences. Lithuania has made strong progress towards realising its vision of a secure, competitive, sustainable and innovative energy system in the Baltic region. The government supported major reforms of the electricity and natural gas markets, and further integrated with the EU energy system and markets. Thanks to the expansion of renewable energy sources, notably bioenergy and wind, the carbon intensity of the power and heat sector has decreased over the past decade. Nevertheless, emissions have been on the rise, notably in the transport sector. Lithuania will need to make energy efficiency a priority, design a strong renewable strategy, and reform energy taxes to underpin its ambitious targets. This kind of clean energy leadership can drive emissions reductions up to 2050. In this report, the IEA provides energy policy recommendations to help Lithuania accelerate its energy transition towards its ambitious 2050 targets for climate neutrality.
  • 12-July-2021

    English

    Carbon Capture, Utilisation and Storage - The Opportunity in Southeast Asia

    Carbon capture, utilisation and storage (CCUS) technologies are set to play an important role in supporting clean energy transitions in Southeast Asia. CCUS can address emissions from the region’s existing power and industrial assets while underpinning new economic opportunities associated with the production of lowcarbon hydrogen and ammonia. Regional co-operation on the development of CO2 transport and storage infrastructure can enable faster and more efficient deployment of CCUS. However, heightened efforts are needed to identify and develop the region’s CO2 storage resources, both on- and offshore. Future investment in CCUS in Southeast Asia will depend on the establishment of legal and regulatory frameworks and policy incentives, with an important role for international finance.
  • 12-July-2021

    English

    Air Quality and Climate Policy Integration in India - Frameworks to deliver co-benefits

    Air pollution has emerged as one of India’s gravest social and environmental problems in recent years. At the same time, the country is experiencing signs of a warming climate with potentially devastating effects in the long term. Energy-related fuel combustion is at the heart of both crises. It is a main source of three major air pollutants, NOX, SO2 and PM2.5, and the largest contributor to India’s CO2 emissions. In many locations, concentrations of particulate matter persistently exceed recommended national and international standards with severe implications for public health. In 2019 alone, India experienced an estimated 1.2 million air pollution-related premature deaths. At the same time, India’s growing economy is driving CO2 emissions, which increased by more than 55% in the last decade, and are expected to rise by 50% to 2040. Today’s energy choices matter for future development, as they have direct and far-reaching implications for the lives of a growing population. Energy-related air pollutants and CO2 emissions often arise from the same sources, therefore the adoption of an integrated approach to tackle both can deliver important co-benefits. This report shows that well designed, coherent policy packages can deliver such synergies if properly implemented. In order to demonstrate co-benefit potential, it provides quantitative analysis that presents the ways in which flagship energy policies can contribute to both air pollution reduction and climate change mitigation in tandem. Four key sectors are assessed for this purpose: captive power plants, industrial energy efficiency, road transport electrification and expanded access to clean cooking. Policy frameworks that accommodate these synergies will provide a more impactful response and deliver durable benefits to the most pressing national health and environmental challenges, while offering great potential for India’s contribution in the global fight against climate change.
  • 12-July-2021

    English

    Spain 2021 Energy Policy Review

    The International Energy Agency (IEA) regularly conducts in-depth peer reviews of the energy policies of its member countries. This process supports energy policy development and encourages the exchange of international best practices and experiences. Since the last IEA review in 2015, Spain has solved a long-standing issue of tariff deficits in its electricity and gas sectors and closed all of its coal mines, which has allowed it to place the energy transition at the forefront of its energy and climate change policies. The current Spanish framework for energy and climate is based on the 2050 objectives of national climate neutrality, 100% renewable energy in the electricity mix, and 97% renewable energy in the total energy mix. As such, it is centred on the massive development of renewable energy, energy efficiency, electrification and renewable hydrogen. Notwithstanding its considerable progress to date on decarbonising and increasing the share of renewables in the electricity sector, Spain’s total energy mix is still heavily dominated by fossil fuels. Notably, the transport, industry and buildings sectors all have considerable work ahead of them to meet the country’s targets for decarbonisation and higher shares of renewables. When all of Spain’s plans and strategies are implemented, a completely different energy sector will emerge in which fossil fuels are no longer dominant and end-user sectors are mostly electrified. Such a transformed energy landscape will come with new challenges and will provide new opportunities. In this report, the IEA provides energy policy recommendations to help Spain effectively manage this transformation of its energy sector.
  • 9-July-2021

    English

    Teachers’ professional learning study: Diagnostic report for Wales

    The Welsh Government asked the OECD to undertake a targeted diagnostic study of Wales’ system for teachers’ Continuing Professional Learning (CPL). Drawing on findings from interviews with Welsh stakeholders and schools, as well as document review, the study team identified strengths and weaknesses of the continuing professional learning system in Wales, as well as opportunities and threats going forward.
  • 9-July-2021

    English

    Government at a Glance 2021

    The 2021 edition includes input indicators on public finance and employment; process indicators include data on institutions, budgeting practices, human resources management, regulatory governance, public procurement, governance of infrastructure, public sector integrity, open government and digital government. Outcome indicators cover core government results (e.g. trust, political efficacy, inequality reduction) and indicators on access, responsiveness, quality and satisfaction for the education, health and justice sectors. Governance indicators are useful for monitoring and benchmarking governments’ progress in their public sector reforms.
  • 9-July-2021

    English

    Hydropower Special Market Report - Analysis and forecast to 2030

    The first ever IEA market report dedicated to hydropower highlights the economic and policy environment for hydropower development, addresses the challenges it faces, and offers recommendations to accelerate growth and maintain the existing infrastructure. This report presents ten-year capacity and generation forecasts for reservoir, run-of-river and pumped storage projects across the globe, based on bottom-up country and project-level monitoring.
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