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Publications


  • 1-September-2022

    English

    Maximising Uranium Mining’s Social and Economic Benefits - A Guide for Stakeholders

    The transformative activity of mining has numerous economic, social and environmental impacts that can be both positive and adverse for communities, ecosystems and economies. As the uranium industry begins to address negative perceptions and legacies associated with past activities, environmental, socioeconomic and governance aspects of the uranium mining life cycle are gaining increased attention from investors, communities, regulators and other stakeholders. While environmental and human health and safety concerns often dominate stakeholder engagement programmes and public conversations about uranium operations, less public discussion and analytical research are typically devoted to the socio-economic aspects. This was the basis for this report. Through an examination of case studies from several countries the aim is to clarify how the numerous activities related to uranium mining affect various aspects of socio-economic development – including employment, supply chain investments, exports, taxes and royalties, innovation, infrastructure, education and medical care. This report’s inventory of leading practices is intended to inform public debate on uranium mine development and provide policymakers with a framework of approaches to maximise the social and economic benefits of uranium mining projects.
  • 30-August-2022

    English

    Does Higher Education Teach Students to Think Critically?

    There is a discernible and growing gap between the qualifications that a university degree certifies and the actual generic, 21st-century skills with which students graduate from higher education. By generic skills, it is meant literacy and critical thinking skills encompassing problem solving, analytic reasoning and communications competency. As automation takes over non- and lower-cognitive tasks in today’s workplace, these generic skills are especially valued but a tertiary degree is a poor indicator of skills level. In the United States, the Council for Aid for Education developed an assessment of generic skills called the CLA+ and carried out testing in six countries between 2016 and 2021. This book provides the data and analysis of this 'CLA+ International Initiative'.
  • 30-August-2022

    English

    OECD blended finance guidance for clean energy

    Meeting the Paris Agreement goals will need a rapid acceleration of finance towards clean energy investments in emerging and developing economies. Blended finance is an important tool that can help mobilise commercial investment towards clean energy, whilst preserving scarce public resources for wider climate and development objectives. A systematic approach to the deployment of blended finance – that tailors instruments to the nature of underlying barriers to commercial investment, minimises concessionality, has a clear exit strategy, and is co-ordinated within a wider ecosystem of support and enabling measures – can help maximise its development impact and stimulate private sector development. This paper explores specific features of clean energy projects, and the wider transition, to draw lessons for donors, policymakers in beneficiary governments, and financial institutions on whether and how best to deploy blended finance in the sector. It revisits the OECD DAC's Blended Finance Principles, specifically Principle 2: designing blended finance to increase the mobilisation of commercial finance, and explores their applicability to clean energy. It also explores sector-specific considerations for the deployment of clean energy, setting out the considerations development practitioners can make to inform better decision-making on, and maximise the development impact of, blended finance interventions.
  • 30-August-2022

    English

    Funding the future - The impact of population ageing on revenues across levels of government

    Government revenues may be affected by economic growth and changes in demographics over time. The effect of economic growth can be captured by long-run buoyancy – responsiveness of government revenues to GDP growth – while the demographic effect can be captured by changes in labour income, asset income and consumption patterns over the life cycle, as well as population growth. This paper attempts to quantify the effect of population ageing on OECD tax revenues across different levels of government, by estimating error correction models of revenue buoyancies over the 1990 to 2018 period, by type of revenue, country and level of government. Multiple scenarios are used for the projections to 2040, which are combined with scenarios for the evolution of revenue bases using newly harmonized EU and UN National Transfer Accounts data as well as OECD Population Projections.
  • 29-August-2022

    English

    Nuclear Power and Secure Energy Transitions - From today’s challenges to tomorrow’s clean energy systems

    Nuclear Power and Secure Energy Transitions: From Today’s Challenges to Tomorrow’s Clean Energy Systems is a new report by the International Energy Agency that looks at how nuclear energy could help address two major crises – energy and climate – facing the world today. Russia’s invasion of Ukraine and the disruptions in global energy supplies that it has fuelled have made governments rethink their energy security strategies, putting a stronger focus on developing more diverse and domestically based supplies. For multiple governments, nuclear energy is among the options for achieving this. At the same time, many governments have in recent years stepped up their ambitions and commitments to reach net zero emissions. Nuclear Power and Secure Energy Transitions expands upon the IEA’s landmark 2021 report, Net Zero by 2050: A Roadmap for the Global Energy Sector. It does so by exploring in depth nuclear power’s potential role as a source of low emissions electricity that is available on demand to complement the leading role of renewables such as wind and solar in the transition to electricity systems with net zero emissions. In this context, the report examines the difficulties facing nuclear investment, particularly in advanced economies, in the areas of cost, performance, safety and waste management. It considers the additional challenge of meeting net zero targets with less nuclear power than envisioned in the IEA Net Zero Roadmap, as well as what kind of cost targets could enable nuclear power to play a larger role in energy transitions. For countries where nuclear power is considered an acceptable part of the future energy mix, the new report identifies the potential policy, regulatory and market changes that could be implemented in order to create new investment opportunities. It also looks at the role of new technologies, particularly small modular reactors, and their potential development and deployment.
  • 29-August-2022

    English

    Electricity Market Report, July 2022

    In the first half of 2022, many electricity markets continued to experience skyrocketing prices, particularly in Europe, reflecting deep uncertainties over both fossil fuel supplies and the economic outlook. Russia’s invasion of Ukraine shattered any hope of energy prices declining in the near term following the strong increases seen in the second half of 2021. In Europe, the situation prompted heightened ambitions and strengthened policies to advance clean energy transitions and reduce dependency on fuel imports. But in the short term, it also resulted in a partial return to coal-fired electricity generation. Sluggish economic growth is expected to dampen global electricity demand growth in 2022 and 2023 to less than half the rate seen in 2021. Despite gas-to-coal switching and low nuclear power plant availability in Europe, global electricity sector emissions may decline slightly in 2022 and 2023 – reflecting a combination of slowing power demand and displacement of fossil fuels by renewables. This July 2022 update of the IEA Electricity Market Report presents our latest forecasts for global electricity demand, supply and emissions through 2023. In light of Russia’s invasion of Ukraine, we also provide a special focus on the situation in Europe, discussing recent developments and future plans.
  • 29-August-2022

    English

    The energy security case for tackling gas flaring and methane leaks

    Russia’s unprovoked invasion of Ukraine has had a dramatic impact on the global energy system. Russia was the world’s largest oil and natural gas exporter in 2021, and energy markets have been thrown into turmoil, with major energy security and supply risks worldwide. Substantial gas resources currently are being produced that do not make it to market because they are lost to flaring and leaks across the oil and gas supply chain. This report estimates that nearly 210 billion cubic metres (bcm) of natural gas could be made available to gas markets by a global effort to eliminate non-emergency flaring and reduce methane emissions from oil and gas operations. If countries that currently export natural gas to the European Union were to implement these two measures, they could increase gas exports by more than 45 bcm using existing infrastructure, equivalent to almost one third of Russian gas exports to the EU in 2021.
  • 26-August-2022

    English

    Measuring and assessing the effects of climate policy uncertainty

    This study proposes a new indicator of Climate Policy Uncertainty based on newspaper coverage frequency. The indicator currently includes 12 OECD Member Countries and covers the period 1990-2018. The index spikes near major political events and during major discussions around potentially significant climate policy changes. Using a global firm-level dataset, the empirical analysis shows that Climate Policy Uncertainty is associated with economically and statistically significant decreases in investment, particularly in pollution-intensive sectors that are most exposed to climate policies, and among capital-intensive companies. In addition to annual series, the study also provides the indicator at higher frequencies of monthly and quarterly levels, and develops sub-indices that capture the direction of climate policy uncertainty associated with a strengthening or a weakening of climate policies for a sub-set of countries.
  • 26-August-2022

    English

    World Energy Investment 2022

    This year’s edition of the World Energy Investment report provides a full update on the investment picture in 2021 and full-year estimates of the outlook for 2022. It examines how investors are assessing risks and opportunities across all areas of fuel and electricity supply, critical minerals, efficiency and research and development, against a backdrop of uncertainties over how events will play out in 2022, namely the ongoing war in Ukraine, the outlook for the global economy, and in some countries the continuing public health risks from the pandemic. The report focuses on some important features of the new investment landscape which are already visible, including the energy security lens through which many investments are now viewed, widespread cost pressures, the major boost in revenues that high fuel prices are bringing to traditional suppliers, and burgeoning expectations in many countries that investments will be aligned with solutions to the climate crisis.
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