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Publications


  • 30-July-2021

    English

    OECD Integrity Review of the State of Mexico - Enabling a Culture of Integrity

    This review analyses the Anti-corruption Policy of the State of Mexico and Municipalities, highlighting its strengths (i.e. inclusion and rigour) as well as the need to include specific integrity risks (i.e. policy capture) to make it more comprehensive. The review analyses how the State Government could develop ownership of ethical rules and values to effectively influence public officials’ behaviour. It also assesses the internal control and risk management scheme of the State of Mexico, providing an overview of its good practices and weak points. Finally, it examines the role of the administrative liability regime for state public officials and its effectiveness in ensuring accountability. It describes the legal framework for administrative responsibilities, which provides a comprehensive and solid foundation for enforcing integrity rules and standards, but requires support to improve implementation.
  • 12-July-2021

    English

    OECD Investment Policy Reviews: Uruguay

    In July 2020, the Investment Committee recommended to Council to invite Uruguay to become the 50th adherent to the OECD Declaration on International Investment and Multinational Enterprises. This OECD Investment Policy Review of Uruguay documents the progress made in recent years to align investment policies with the national development strategy in pursuit of the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs). The Review also assesses remaining challenges in improving the business climate, in particular the actions needed to establish an enabling responsible business environment and ensure full application of the Declaration. Uruguay’s success in attracting more and better investment will make its economy more resilient and better prepared to accelerate the recovery after COVID-19.
  • 1-July-2021

    English

    Measuring What Matters for Child Well-being and Policies

    To design, implement and monitor effective child well-being policies, policy-makers need data that better capture children’s lives, measure what is important to them and detect emerging problems and vulnerabilities early on. Despite improvements in recent decades, there are still important gaps in both national and cross-national child data. Countries can achieve progress if the right actions are taken. Measuring What Matters for Child Well-being and Policies lays the groundwork for improved child well-being measurement and better data to inform better child well-being policies. It outlines an 'aspirational' framework for child well-being measurement, setting out which aspects of children’s lives should be measured, and how, to better monitor child well-being. It also outlines priorities for child data development and identifies key data gaps, all with the aim of motivating improvements in child data infrastructures.
  • 30-June-2021

    English

    The Future of Corporate Governance in Capital Markets Following the COVID-19 Crisis

    This report provides an evidence-based overview of developments in capital markets globally leading up to the COVID-19 crisis. It then documents the impact of the crisis on the use of capital markets and the introduction of temporary corporate governance measures. Although the structural effects of the crisis on capital markets and its interplay with corporate governance remain to be fully understood, this report presents trends that can be used to shape policies that will support the recovery and formulates key policy messages that will guide the upcoming review of the G20/OECD Principles of Corporate Governance. The report emphasises that the road to recovery will require well-functioning capital markets that can allocate substantial financial resources for long-term investments. It also highlights the need to adapt corporate governance rules and practices to the post-COVID-19 reality, particularly in areas such as increased ownership concentration; environmental, social and governance (ESG) risk management; digitalisation; insolvency; audit quality and creditor rights.
  • 30-June-2021

    English

    Production Transformation Policy Review of Shenzhen, China - A Journey of Continuous Learning

    Shenzhen is a stellar case of growth and economic transformation. Since its establishment as one of China’s first four Special Economic Zones in 1980, it has evolved at breakneck speed. Shenzhen transformed from a fishing village to a major world trade hub and is now home to global innovators in electronics. The Production Transformation Policy Review (PTPR) of Shenzhen, China reviews the city’s changing policy approaches, focusing on the shift from an assembly to a manufacturing centre and more recently to an innovation and start-up hub. Through a comprehensive assessment of Shenzhen’s experience, this review offers insights into the range of policies and strategies employed to stimulate industrial upgrading and learning in China. It provides lessons and actionable policy recommendations for the growth of cities and emerging economies in their catching-up journey. The PTPR of Shenzhen, China has been carried out in the framework of the OECD Initiative for Policy Dialogue on Global Value Chains, Production Transformation and Development and has benefitted from government-business dialogues and international peer learning (University of Seoul, Korea; University of Georgetown, USA and Digital India Foundation, India).
  • 30-June-2021

    English

    Typology of Corruption Risks in Commodity Trading Transactions

    Commodity trading presents specific and heightened risks of corruption due to the large amount of money involved in commodity trading transactions, which are source of important revenues for developing countries, and due to the sophisticated mechanisms used to channel corrupt payments. These include complex and opaque corporate structures, the use of off-shore entities, that render the identification of beneficial owners more difficult, the use of intermediaries (including briefcase or shell companies) and joint ventures with politically exposed persons (PEPs). This report maps out corruption risks of cross-cutting relevance for the sales of oil, gas and minerals that can arise at several points in commodity trading transactions. It contributes to advancing the global transparency and accountability agenda in commodity trading, by improving understanding and raising awareness of corruption red flags and evolving corruption patterns across a wide range of stakeholders, including home jurisdictions of commodity trading companies, trading hubs, host governments, state-owned enterprises and commodity trading companies.
  • 30-June-2021

    English

    Options for Operationalising Transparency in Commodity Trading Transactions

    Given their sheer magnitude, the payments made by companies for the purchase of oil, gas and minerals from governments or state-owned enterprises are of significant public interest. However, only a few commodity trading companies regularly publicly disclose information in respect of their payments to governments for the purchase of these publicly-owned commodities. This report makes a case for the development of a common global standard on transparency of payments that trading hubs, home governments and industry associations can use to ensure consistency, comparability and usability of data, building on the 2019 EITI Standard. Complementary measures by host governments and SOEs are necessary to set shared expectations across jurisdictions, including in producing countries. These include the adoption of disclosure policies as well as the inclusion of disclosure obligations in commodity sales contracts to set clear expectations on transparency of payments, and avoid potential conflicting requirements and bilateral negotiations.
  • 30-June-2021

    English

    Education in Brazil - An International Perspective

    The Education in Brazil: An International Perspective report was developed drawing on internationally comparative data on education in Brazil, in particular the extensive range of data collected by the OECD through its surveys. The experiences of other countries and how they have tackled challenges similar to those now faced by Brazil, along with the insights from consultations with key national experts, also inform the analysis. The report benchmarks with OECD and a set of comparator emerging economies the whole education system from early childhood education and care to tertiary education, focusing on: Access and participation Learning and labour market outcomes The allocation, use and efficiency of financial, human and material resources School leaders, teachers and teaching The school climate and student well-being The report highlights the many strengths of Brazil’s education system, identifies the main challenges ahead and offers policy implications for the future.
  • 30-June-2021

    English

    Public Integrity in Ecuador - Towards a National Integrity System

    Public integrity is necessary to respond to corruption, sustain trust in public institutions and manage crises such as COVID-19 effectively. This report analyses the institutional responsibilities on public integrity in Ecuador. It proposes concrete recommendations to address fragmentation and to build a public integrity system involving all relevant actors at national level. The report also reviews Ecuador’s strategic approach to public integrity and proposes a roadmap toward a long-term state policy in line with national and international development objectives. Finally, it examines how Ecuador could mainstream integrity within the public entities of the executive branch.
  • 30-June-2021

    English

    OECD Reviews of Innovation Policy: Kuwait 2021

    The slowdown in market demand for oil is putting increasing pressure on Kuwait's current economic and social model. This model is based on the distribution of petroleum export proceeds to Kuwaiti citizens, with relatively limited long-term investment in knowledge production and the upgrading of the national innovation capacity. The transition towards a knowledge-based society – where value creation, the resolution of societal challenges and the well-being of society at large will be based on the production, diffusion and implementation of knowledge – is becoming an imperative. This is recognised within the national development strategy which formulates the objective of attaining 'Smart Kuwait' by 2035. Such a transition is challenging and can only be achieved through the build-up of appropriate governance of the STI system with adequate institutions such as a Ministry and a professional agency with a mandate for research and innovation. This set-up should help raise awareness and reduce barriers to innovation, reinforce the scientific research base, develop the support for business innovation, foster knowledge diffusion and co‑creation between science and industry, build up the human capital needed, and establish the role of science, technology and innovation in tackling Kuwait's societal challenges.
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