The science and innovation response to COVID-19 has been a mix of national and international efforts. By August 2020, about USD 2 billion (a mix of public and private money) had been pledged for international research efforts (Figure 1), mostly through the Coalition for Epidemic Preparedness Innovation (CEPI) and the Global Alliance for Vaccines and Immunization (GAVI) for developing COVID-19 vaccines. These efforts have built on recent and previously untested technological and institutional innovations at the global level that have enabled the rapid development of vaccines. The United States and China are among the two major contributors to COVID-19 publications (Figure 8), and about a quarter of their publications are co-authored with researchers based in another country. Other countries with high engagement in international research collaborations on COVID-19 include the United Kingdom, Germany, France, Italy, Australia, Canada and India.
International scientific collaboration on COVID-19 biomedical research
Whole counts, January to November 30, 2020
Source: OECD and OCTS-OEI calculations based on US National Institutes of Health PubMed data (accessed 30 November 2020). StatLink https://doi.org/10.1787/888934223099