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  • 13-October-2021

    English

    Enhancing the digital security of critical activities

    The digital transformation of critical activities such as the delivery of water, energy, healthcare, telecommunications, and banking services increasingly exposes them to cybersecurity threats, which can affect the health, safety, and security of citizens, the functioning of essential services, or economic and social prosperity more broadly. This Going Digital Toolkit note introduces key concepts, such as critical activities, critical information infrastructure (CII), cybersecurity and digital security risk management, and helps policymakers identify what needs to be protected and what types of measures operators of critical activities should take. It further discusses the institutional framework to develop and supervise policies to enhance the digital security of critical activities, including trust-based partnerships, and provides a selection of policy approaches from a range of jurisdictions in the Annex.
  • 4-October-2021

    English

    Putting the OECD AI Principles into practice: Progress and future perspectives

    Watch the recording of this high-level discussion about progress in implementing the OECD Principles on Artificial Intelligence that took place 4 October as part of the OECD Ministerial Council meeting.

  • 30-September-2021

    English

    Venture capital investments in artificial intelligence - Analysing trends in VC in AI companies from 2012 through 2020

    New analysis of global investments by venture capitalists (VC) in private companies focused on artificial intelligence (AI) found VC investments in AI to be growing at a dramatic pace. The United States and the People’s Republic of China are leading this wave of investments that tend to concentrate on a few key industries. The data showed that the European Union, United Kingdom and Japan increased investments, but lag behind the two dominant players. The study analysed venture capital investments in 8 300 AI firms worldwide, covering 20 549 transactions between 2012 and 2020, based on data provided by Preqin, a private capital-markets analysis firm in London. The data did not capture every deal and required some extrapolation, yet the timeliness of the findings provides a valuable source of information as national governments, international organisations, public and private sectors develop policies and strategies to capture the benefits of AI for all.
  • 24-September-2021

    English

    Broadband policy and technology developments

    The promotion of widespread, affordable, and high-quality broadband is a prerequisite for the digital transformation of economies and societies. Foreseeing the role of broadband as an accelerator of economic, social and cultural development, the OECD adopted the Council Recommendation on Broadband Development in 2004. Since then, important developments have taken place in broadband technologies and markets. As part of the review of the 2004 Recommendation undertaken from 2018 to 2020 and resulting in the adoption of the revised 2021 OECD Council Recommendation on Broadband Connectivity, this report examines the evolution of broadband technologies, policies and regulation to foster broadband developments since 2004 as well as the benefits of, and challenges to, accelerating these developments to further enable digital transformation and inclusive growth.
  • 24-September-2021

    English

    Emerging trends in communication market competition

    Communication market structures and their effect on delivering efficient and inclusive connectivity is of key interest to policy makers and regulators. This report discusses emerging competition trends in OECD broadband markets that are shaping market structures, covering both fixed and mobile networks. The increasing complementarity of fixed and wireless networks and the convergence of previously separate markets have led to new forms of communication market competition. While convergence has been acting as a driver for market consolidation, there is also increased scrutiny in merger review. Some OECD countries are discussing options to keep mobile communication markets open to new entrants in the context of merger reviews, while others have experienced a recent wave of entry. The report explores the role of horizontal and vertical mergers in communication markets, presents examples of entry in mobile communication markets, and discusses some of effects of entry and consolidation in OECD markets.
  • 24-September-2021

    English

    Implementation and usage of the OECD Recommendation on Broadband Development

    Without connectivity, there can be no digital transformation of economies and societies. With this in mind, the OECD Recommendation of the Council on Broadband Development was adopted in 2004. Since then, broadband markets, underlying technologies, and the policies in place to spur the development of broadband networks have undergone significant changes. This document summarises the outcome of an extensive questionnaire sent to delegates of OECD countries and stakeholder groups. The questionnaire aimed to gather information on the experience of OECD countries concerning broadband development in general, and more particularly their experience in implementing the 2004 Recommendation. The responses to the questionnaire were used to inform the review and revision of the 2004 Recommendation, which resulted in the adoption of the 2021 OECD Council Recommendation on Broadband Connectivity.
  • 22-September-2021

    English

    The human capital behind AI - Jobs and skills demand from online job postings

    Building on recent OECD work, this paper analyses the skills sets ('skills bundles') demanded in artificial intelligence (AI)-related online job postings. The analysis uses Burning Glass Technologies’ data for the United States and the United Kingdom and finds that skills related to the open source programming software Python and to machine learning represent 'must-haves' for working with AI. Employers additionally value specialised skills related to robotics, AI development and applying AI. A comparison of the periods 2013-15 and 2017-19 shows that the latter two have become more interrelated over time, with 'neural network' skills connecting both groups. Network analysis relating AI skills to general skills highlights the growing role of socio-emotional skills; and of skill bundles related to programming, management of big data and data analysis. Key results hold for both countries and time periods, though differences emerge across occupations and industries.
  • 14-September-2021

    English

    Bridging connectivity divides

    Reliable and high-quality connectivity is fundamental for the digital transformation. Now more than ever, access to high-quality broadband services at affordable prices is essential to ensure that economic and social activities can continue in an increasingly remote manner. However, important disparities in terms of connectivity persist, aggravating the consequences of digital divides. As such, expanding connectivity to achieve an inclusive society is at the heart of policy agendas in OECD countries. However, more concretely, what are the innovative policies and regulatory measures that have proven to work best to ensure connectivity for all? This Going Digital Toolkit note provides a 'roadmap' to policymakers by identifying policies and regulation to effectively reduce connectivity divides. Such policies include promoting competition, fostering investment, and removing barriers to broadband deployment, as well as a set of tailored approaches that are particularly relevant to extending connectivity in rural and remote areas. The Annex of this note provides examples of related policy and regulatory approaches implemented by different OECD countries.
  • 4-August-2021

    English

    SMEs Going Digital - Policy challenges and recommendations

    Despite potential benefits, small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) lag behind larger firms in their adoption of digital technologies. Moreover, digital adoption by SMEs is to a large extent still confined to basic services, and adoption gaps increase as technologies become more sophisticated. The COVID-19 crisis has accelerated SME digitalisation, but barriers to adoption persist. The stakes are high, not only because SMEs make up most of the business and industrial fabric in most countries and regions, but also because they are strategic actors in large firms’ supply chains and play a key role in building inclusive and resilient societies. This Going Digital Toolkit note identifies the challenges that governments face in enabling SMEs to benefit from digital transformation and outlines key policy recommendations, including: 1) encouraging digital uptake by SMEs, 2) supporting SME training and upskilling, 3) strengthening management skills in SMEs, and 4) leveraging financial technology (Fintech) and alternative sources of finance for SMEs.
  • 3-August-2021

    English

    An overview of national AI strategies and policies

    As artificial intelligence (AI) advances across economies and societies, policy makers and AI actors around the world seek to move from principles to practice. To harness the benefits of AI while mitigating the risks, governments are investing in AI R&D; leveraging AI in specific industries such as transportation and healthcare; building human capacity on AI; ensuring a fair labour market transformation; reviewing and adapting relevant policy and regulatory frameworks and developing standards; and co-operating internationally. This Going Digital Toolkit note provides an overview of the various AI policy initiatives undertaken by governments and analyses these initiatives throughout the AI policy cycle: 1) policy design; 2) policy implementation; 3) policy intelligence; and 4) approaches for international and multi-stakeholder co-operation on AI policy.
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