Directorate for Science, Technology and Innovation
Frascati Manual 2015
Guidelines for Collecting and Reporting Data on Research and Experimental Development
The internationally recognised methodology for collecting and using R&D statistics,
the OECD's Frascati Manual is an essential tool for statisticians and science and
innovation policy makers worldwide. It includes definitions of basic concepts, data
collection guidelines, and classifications for compiling R&D statistics. This updated
edition contains improved guidelines reflecting recent changes in the way R&D takes
place and is funded and the wider use of R&D statistics and definitions. It provides
new chapters dedicated to the pratical aspects of collecting R&D data in different
sectors, as well as new guidance on capturing different aspects of public support
for R&D such as tax incentives.
Research and experimental development (R&D) comprise creative and systematic work undertaken in order to increase the stock of knowledge – including knowledge of humankind, culture and society – and to devise new applications of available knowledge. A glossary of key terms provides an up-to-date list of key concepts and definitions used in the Frascati Manual and its annexes.
A community space exists for OECD Working Party of National Experts on Science and Technology Indicators (NESTI) providers of R&D statistics to discuss manual implementation experiences and seek advice and support from peers and the OECD: http://oe.cd/frascati-community
Revision process and earlier editions
The Frascati Manual is based on the experience gained from collecting R&D statistics in both OECD and non-member countries. The 2015 edition is the result of the collective work of the OECD Working Party of National Experts on Science and Technology Indicators (NESTI), involving more than 120 experts from nearly 40 countries and international organisations. The revision took place over two years and was supported by an open online consultation and discussions with various other OECD committees. The manual has been endorsed by the OECD Committee for Scientific and Technological Policy (CSTP) and the OECD Committee for Statistics and Statistical Policy (CSSP).
The manual owes its name to the Italian town where, in 1962, the OECD NESTI group first agreed on a common approach to measure and report statistics on R&D. The manual has been revised on six occasions to address new challenges and take into account emerging user interests. Past editions: 2002 ¦ 1994 ¦ 1981 ¦ 1976 ¦ 1970 ¦ 1963