Regional, rural and urban development

OECD Mining Regions and Cities










Delivering regional development for regions and cities specialised in mining and extractive industries



What's the issue?

The mining sector is relevant for the economic development and well-being of countries and regions. Unlike other industries, mining is geographically concentrated in those areas where the deposits lie, creating particular interactions with local communities and the environment. The subnational dimension is critical to seize the opportunities and address the challenges derived from mining specialisation. Key factors underlining this initiative:

  • World consumption of raw materials is set to nearly double by 2060 – mining regions supply the raw materials for the future
  • Mining regions must have proactive strategies to manage the commodity cycle (investment, production; transition, and closure)
  • Mining is spatially concentrated, often in low-density economies – linkages with local economies vary considerably
  • Mining and extractive industries can deliver significant benefits through jobs, investment and technological innovation, but need clear agreements and policies to share mining benefits.
  • The localised costs of extractive industries – environmental externalities, land use conflicts, and inequalities need to be mitigated.
  • Mining Regions and cities are key in contributing to the SDGs – Climate Action (SDG13), Responsible Consumption (SDG12), Decent Work & Economic Growth (SDG8) and Reduced Inequalities (SDG10)




What can the OECD offer?

The OECD Mining Cities and Regions initiatives aims to develop recommendations for improving regional development outcomes for regions and cities specialised in mining and extractive industries. The project has three objectives:

  1. Develop a global toolbox with recommendations and evidence to benchmark and inform regional development in a mining and extractives industry context for the mining industry, for national and sub-national governments, and non-government organisations to cooperate on addressing shared challenges.
  2. Produce a series of case studies that deliver regional specific recommendations and support for regions and cities to implement better regional development policies
  3. Develop a global platform for mining regions and cities through events and peer-review that enable knowledge sharing, advocacy and dialogue between public/private sectors and local communities on better policies to enhance regional productivity and wellbeing.



The Case of Andalusia, Spain

Andalusia is the largest mining producer in Spain, the second-largest copper producer in the EU and a leader in marble and gypsum production. The region benefits from two distinct mining subsectors, the metallic mining sector (e.g. copper and zinc), which accounts for most of the regional mining production, and the non-metallic sector (ornamental rocks, aggregates and industrial minerals. This study identifies how Andalusia can build on its strengths and address current and future challenges to improve regional productivity and well-being while accelerating the transition to a low-carbon economy and assisting EU climate goals.

Read the policy highlights in English


Read the policy highlights in Spanish 

Read the book 


Watch the launch video in Spanish

Watch the launch video in English

The Case of Upper Norrland in Sweden

The OECD has conducted a case study of the mining regions of Västerbotten and Norrbotten, which constitute the larger region of Upper Norrland. Västerbotten and Norrbotten are strategically important in a European context because of their role in supplying raw materials and associated value-adding. The study assesses policies, governance structures and implementation mechanisms related to sustainable supply of raw materials, opportunities for diversification, the regulatory framework and engagement with Sami People of Sweden. 

Read the policy highlights


 Read the book

Watch the launch video


The Case of Outokumpu, North Karelia in Finland

OECD has conducted a case study on the mining region of North Karelia and the municipality of  Outokumpu  in Finland. The study provides recommendations to mobilize the region's assets and address development challenges, as well as to improve economic diversification, welfare and entrepreneurship.

Read the policy highlights


Read the book



Enhancing well-being in Mining Regions - Key Issues and Lessons for Developing Indicators

This paper provides analytical background and input for discussion for the 3rd Meeting of OECD Regions and Cities in Skellefteå, Sweden. It proposes the development of a new set of indicators to measure well-being of mining regions and asks partners to provide feedback and share leading practice examples related to the well-being challenges identified. Click here for pdf version.


Leading practices for resource benefit sharing and development for and with Indigenous communities

This OECD working paper summarises leading practices for benefit sharing, workforce development, and business and governance development for and with Indigenous peoples. Read the paper

4th - Karratha, Australia, 20-23 June 2023

The meeting in Karratha will have a special focus on policies to increase local productivity and value chain participation related to the mining and resources sector and to support economic diversification that builds long-term economic resilience.

Find out more about the meeting


3rd - Skellefteå, Sweden, 2019

The 3rd OECD Meeting of Mining Regions and Cities was held in Skellefteä, Sweden in June 2019. The event in Skelleftea focused on how mining can be a driver of improved regional well-being and also contribute to environmentally sustainable regions for future and current generations?

Read the proceedings


Read the pre-conference record


2nd - Darwin, Northern Territory Australia, 2018

The 2nd OECD Meeting of Mining Regions and Cities was held in Darwin, Australia on 21-22 November. The event included a special focus on Indigenous peoples, and mining, resources and regional development in the context of Southeast Asia and helped define the forward plan for the OECD Mining Regions and Cities initiative.

Read the proceedings


1st - Antofagasta, Chile, 2017

The first OECD Mining Regions event was held in Antofagasta, Chile in October 2017 and was attended by 275 participants across 14 countries.

Read the proceedings


Find out more about the meeting




Kick-off event - Towards a Regional Mining Strategy in Antofagasta, Chile

Description: Between 24-28 October,  the OECD conducted the first mission of the OECD mining regions and cities support Antofagasta, Chile to develop the first regional mining strategy. The mission promoted several spaces of dialogue among mining companies (big and small), providers, academia and communities (e.g. Indigenous representatives), including:

For more information visit the website of the project


The virtual discussion was organised on 23 June 2020 jointly with MIREU tol explore the impacts of the coronavirus pandemic on mining regions and cities and the responses and opportunities emerging from this crisis in the short and long term.  This virtual discussion served as a platform to exchange experiences and best practices from OECD mining regions and cities in the context of the COVID-19 crisis. 

For more information visit the MIREU website.


OECD Mining Regions and Cities Workshop Seville, Andalucía, Spain

In October 2019 the OECD Mining Regions and Cities Initiative held a workshop on: fostering local innovation and developing value chains in a mining context.The workshop was the first step in developing an OECD Mining Regions and Cities Case Study of Andalucía. 

Read the summary record  



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