Social and welfare issues


The Pursuit of Gender Equality

An Uphill Battle

Gender inequalities persist in all areas of social and economic life and across countries. Young women in OECD countries generally obtain more years of schooling than young men, but women are less likely than men to engage in paid work. Gaps widen with age, as motherhood typically has marked negative effects on gender pay gaps and career advancement. Women are also less likely to be entrepreneurs, and are underrepresented in private and public leadership positions. The 2013 and 2015 OECD Gender Recommendations provide guidance on how to advance gender equality in education, employment, entrepreneurship and public life; this book discusses recent developments in these areas in one overview chapter and 24 short chapters which each include key findings and policy recommendations. Topics include violence against women, gender budgeting, the unequal sharing of unpaid work, labour market outcomes and migration. The book presents a range of indicators illustrating gender gaps. It also discusses recent policy initiatives, such as pay transparency measures to reduce gender wage gaps and policy reform aimed at fathers taking parental leave. Overall, progress has been slow and there is a strong need for further policy action to close gender gaps in education, employment, entrepreneurship and public life.

Published on October 04, 2017Also available in: French


Foreword and acknowledgements
Acronyms and conventional signs
Executive summary
Gender equality: A global overview5 chapters available
Gender equality in the OECD and around the world: An overview
Sustainable development goals and gender equality
Governance for gender equality
Socio-demographic change and gender roles
Violence against women: A new policy priority for OECD countries
Gender equality in education5 chapters available
Where girls still lag behind in education
The under-representation of women in STEM fields
Boys fall behind at school, but catch up shortly thereafter
Boys and men are under-represented in health studies and among teachers
Gender gaps in financial literacy and financial education
Gender equality in employment13 chapters available
Women at work: A snapshot of women in the labour force
The gender wage gap
Barriers to women's career path and income mobility
Glass ceilings still unbroken
Gender inequality in unpaid work
A good start for equal parenting: Paid parental leave
Childcare supports: Helping both parents in paid work
Flexible working arrangements
Gender gaps in education and labour markets of emerging economies
Gender inequality in the Middle East and North Africa: Women's participation in economic and public life
Women on the move
Gender, health and labour force participation
Going digital: The future of work for women
Gender equality in entrepreneurship2 chapters available
Gender gaps in entrepreneurship persist
Policies to address barriers to women entrepreneurs
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