Regional, rural and urban development


OECD Regions and Cities at a Glance 2022

OECD Regions and Cities at a Glance presents indicators on individual regions and cities since the turn of the new millennium. It provides a comprehensive picture of past successes and likely challenges that regions and cities in OECD members and partner countries will face in their efforts to build stronger, more sustainable and more resilient economies. By relying on a combination of traditional and more innovative data sources, OECD Regions and Cities at a Glance describes the evolving nature of spatial disparities within countries from a multidimensional perspective. New topics covered by this edition include the economic impact of recent shocks, such as the pandemic and the energy crisis, housing affordability, climate change and digitalisation.

Published on November 15, 2022

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Reader’s guide
Executive summary
Regional economic trends and spatial disparities5 chapters available
Employment: Regional recovery and persistent demographic gaps
Economic growth and polarisation across regions
Productivity trends in regions
Regional attractiveness and integration: Tourism, trade and foreign direct investment (FDI)
Cultural and creative sectors
Regions and cities in environmental transition8 chapters available
Towards climate neutrality by 2050
Towards sustainable and resilient energy systems
Households in the energy and climate crises
Towards resilient and sustainable industries in regions
Sustainable transport in regions
Land use in cities
Sustainable agriculture and resilient forests in regions
Human settlements adapting to climate change
Regions and cities facing demographic change7 chapters available
Population growth across OECD cities and rural areas
Global trends in city population growth
Ageing population
Mobility across regions
Presence of international migrants by type of region
Integration of international migrants into regional labour markets
Educational attainment of migrants
Building inclusive and liveable regions and cities5 chapters available
Resilient health systems in regions
Income inequality and poverty in regions
Remote work in European regions and cities
Housing affordability in regions and cities
Digitalisation trends in regions
Annexes3 chapters available
Defining regions, cities and metropolitan areas
Sources and data description
Indexes and estimation techniques
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Key messages


Employment has only recovered in about half of OECD regions. Colombia and Costa Rica, as well as Greece, had the widest disparities of job recovery across their regions.


Although 50 OECD regions still rely mostly on coal for electricity generation, remote regions lead clean energy production, and capital regions on the transition towards electric and hybrid mobility.

Digital access

Metropolitan regions have 40% faster fixed internet on average than regions far from metropolitan areas, meaning that rural areas could slip behind due to poor digital infrastructure.