Publications & Documents

  • 30-June-2024


    Recruiting Immigrant Workers: Japan 2024

    Japan has historically been among the OECD countries with the lowest migration flows relative to its population. However, the situation has changed significantly in the past few years. To counteract the impact of rapid population ageing on the labour market, Japan has introduced major policy changes in the governance of recruitment from abroad. This review examines the role of labour migration policy in the specific context of Japan and identifies policy directions for the future. Covering labour migration at all skill levels, the review assesses how the long-standing migration channels for international students and high-skilled migrants fare in attracting and retaining international talent. It also reviews the main channels for low to medium skill trades, including the recently introduced Specified Skilled Worker Programme.
  • 11-June-2024


    Strengthening the human capital of forcibly displaced persons in and from Ukraine - Background note for the Ukraine Recovery Conference 2024

    Since the start of Russia’s large-scale invasion of Ukraine, more than 10 million people have been displaced, either within Ukraine or abroad. Labour market integration of internally and externally displaced individuals remains challenging. While many immediate measures were undertaken in Ukraine and in host countries to support displaced Ukrainians, longer-term solutions are needed to enhance their human capital, and allow them not only to integrate into their receiving communities but also contribute to the recovery of Ukraine.
  • 28-May-2024


    Labor Migration in Asia - Trends, Skills Certification and Seasonal Work

    This report is based on the discussions at the 13th ADBI-OECD-ILO Roundtable on Labor Migration in Asia: Integrating Skills Development and Certification into the Labor Migration Cycle, held on 27–28 June 2023 in Bangkok, Thailand. The annual roundtable brings together labor experts and policy makers from across Asia to discuss trends in labor migration and emerging policy and issues on migrant workers. Chapter 1 analyzes labor migration flows in Asia and relevant policy developments, including a section on the flow and cost of remittances. Chapter 2 looks at the pathways for middle-skilled migration and the accompanying skills recognition or certification approaches in Singapore and Thailand, focusing on the construction sector. Chapter 3 examines programs for seasonal workers in Australia, New Zealand, and the United Kingdom, and how they relate to other programs for migrant workers in agriculture. The chapter also provides an overview of seasonal migrant worker options in the agriculture sector in Japan and the Republic of Korea, and Thai seasonal workers in Nordic countries. Statistical annexes provide updated economy-specific notes and comparative tables on country-level migration flows.
  • 17-May-2024


    Health Workforce

    Health workers are crucial for ensuring access to high quality care for the whole population. The OECD advises countries on how to meet future demand for health professionals and how to manage the supply of health workers, by reviewing policies related to education and training, continuous professional development, geographic distribution and immigration.

    Related Documents
  • 8-March-2024


    Voices in Europe - Experiences, Hopes and Aspirations of Forcibly Displaced Persons from Ukraine

    Since the onset of Russia’s large-scale war against Ukraine, millions of people have been forced to flee their homes in search of a safe haven. This report synthesises the findings of the Survey of Arriving Migrants from Ukraine (SAM-UKR), conducted by the European Union Agency for Asylum (EUAA) in collaboration with the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD), covering prevailing themes of forced displacement from Ukraine. These themes encompass demographics, reasons for departure, experiences along the journey, life in the host country, return intentions, and future aspirations. In addition to presenting survey results, the report draws on over 1 500 personal testimonies provided by respondents to offer a more direct insight into the decision-making process and emotional state of displaced persons, thereby illuminating their struggles, anxieties, hopes, and aspirations resulting from their displacement.
  • 31-January-2024


    Return, Reintegration and Re-migration - Understanding Return Dynamics and the Role of Family and Community

    Return migration has emerged as a critical policy concern for both destination and origin countries. While policy attention in destination countries has been focused on assisted voluntary return and reintegration (AVRR) programs, particularly for migrants with expulsion orders, these efforts represent only a fraction of broader return movements. This report, based on a project carried out by the OECD with support from the German Corporation for International Co-operation (Deutsche Gesellschaft für Internationale Zusammenarbeit GmbH – GIZ), commissioned by the Federal Ministry for Economic Co-operation and Development, analyses the scope and characteristics of different categories of return migration. The report draws on three workshops, held in Tunis, Rabat and Brussels, that discussed return migration in different contexts. It examines the multiple factors that influence migrants' decisions to return to their countries of origin and their reintegration at home, including the role of family and community. The report emphasises the pre-existing structures and networks of returning migrants in origin countries and their role in supporting different types of return migrants. The report also looks at potential re-migration.
  • 12-December-2023


    Economic insecurity in Europe and potential policy responses

    Over the past few decades, economies and technologies have shifted in ways that have made people’s economic prospects more uncertain. This Policy Insights highlights the main findings from On Shaky Ground? Income Instability and Economic Insecurity in Europe, the inaugural report of the OECD Observatory on Social Mobility and Equal Opportunity. It utilises novel techniques to identify the economically insecure, those most vulnerable to income fluctuations, in European OECD countries, and explores the link between income fluctuations, social mobility, and income inequality. It also recommends a range of policies aimed at enhancing social protection timeliness to better support those with highly volatile incomes and at building financial buffers for individuals at risk of economic insecurity.
  • 22-November-2023


    Misuse of Citizenship and Residency by Investment Programmes

    Citizenship and residency by investment (CBI/RBI) programmes are government-administered programmes that grant citizenship or residency to foreign investors by expediting or bypassing normal migration processes. These programmes can help spur economic growth through foreign direct investment, but they are also attractive to criminals and corrupt officials seeking to evade justice and launder the proceeds of crime reaching into the billions of dollars. This report highlights how CBI programmes can allow criminals more global mobility and help them hide their identity and criminal activities behind shell companies in other jurisdictions. It highlights the vulnerabilities of these complex and international investment migration programmes, including the frequent use of intermediaries, involvement of multiple government agencies, abuse by professional enablers and lack of proper governance of the CBI/RBI programmes. The report proposes measures and examples of good practice, that can help policy makers and those responsible for managing the investment migration programmes address these risks. These include an in-depth analysis and understanding of how criminals can exploit CBI or RBI programmes and incorporating risk mitigation measures, such as multi-layer due diligence, in the design of the investment migration programme.
  • 21-November-2023


    Examining recent mortality trends - The impact of demographic change

    The pandemic resulted in a significant increase in the number of deaths in many OECD countries. With detailed data now available by age and sex, this OECD Health Working Paper examines the trends and differences in mortality patterns over the three-year span of the pandemic. While a simple comparison of the raw number of deaths with reference to a historical base period has proved to be an important and straightforward indicator to assess the overall impact of the pandemic, most OECD countries have undergone major changes in population size and structure. This paper reviews the methodology of calculating changes in mortality to take account of such demographic trends and, in producing a revised set of estimates using adjusted numbers of deaths, highlights some important variations in mortality across years, countries and age groups.
  • 3-November-2023


    Working towards dual intent integration of Ukrainian refugees

    As the displacement of Ukrainians in OECD countries is prolonged, additional integration support in host countries is needed for optimal outcomes, yet the nature and scope of support needed may not align with the usual integration practices as many refugees are expected to want to return to home when the situation permits. Considering the conflicting needs, adopting a dual intent approach could prepare for both indefinite stay as well as for possible return of refugees by deliberatively seeking to minimise possible return barriers.
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