Russian Federation


Governance Frameworks to Counter Illicit Trade

This report examines governance frameworks to counter illicit trade. It looks at the adequacy and effectiveness of sanctions and penalties applicable, the steps parties engaged in illicit trade take to lower the risk of detection - for example through small shipments - and the use of free trade zones as hubs for managing trade in illicit products. It also identifies gaps in enforcement that may need to be addressed. The report provides an overview of selected enforcement issues in BRICS economies (Brazil, China, India, the Russian Federation and South Africa).

Published on March 01, 2018

In series:Illicit Tradeview more titles


Executive Summary
Part One: Countering Illicit Trade, enforcement challenges4 chapters available
Key Institutional Capacities to Counter Illicit Trade
Effectiveness of Enforcement Frameworks for Countering Illicit Trade
Role of Small Shipments in Illicit Trade and its impact on enforcement
Enforcement Challenges in Countering Illicit Trade in Free Trade Zones (FTZ)
Part Two: Survey of some enforcement practices in BRICS economies8 chapters available
Governance frameworks for combatting Counterfeiting in BRICS Economies: Overview
Governance frameworks for combatting counterfeiting in Brazil
Governance frameworks for combatting counterfeiting in China
Governance frameworks for combatting counterfeiting in India
Governance frameworks for combatting counterfeiting in the Russian Federation
Governance frameworks for combatting counterfeiting in South Africa
Additional Tables
Example of CN 22 and CN 23 Forms
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Key findings

Poor implementation of policies against illicit trade, and a lack of co-ordination across borders, is allowing criminal networks to evade detection and enforcement.
The rapid growth in the use of postal and courier services, as well as online sales, is leading to more illicit trade in small shipments, which increases the cost of enforcement.
Free Trade Zones – separate areas inside a single country that are subject to light or no regulation, duties and taxes – can be safe havens for criminal networks looking to move illicit goods.