Towards Greener and More Inclusive Societies in Southeast Asia

Over 100 million workers in Southeast Asia have jobs that are directly or closely linked to the environment, making them vulnerable to climate change impacts. These same workers likely earn at least 20% lower than the national average and are largely in informal employment. The region’s necessary transition towards greener growth could affect them in several ways: some sectors will create jobs and others will lose jobs or disappear altogether. Understanding the effects of both climate change and green growth policies on jobs and people is thus essential for making the transition in Southeast Asia an inclusive one. The study explores these issues, with emphasis on the potential effects on labour of an energy transition in Indonesia, and of a transition in the region’s agricultural sector, illustrated by a simulated conversion from conventional to organic rice farming.

Published on March 11, 2024

In series:Development Centre Studiesview more titles


Abbreviations and acronyms
Executive summary
Green growth in Southeast Asia: Trends and commitments
Environmental degradation and employment vulnerabilities in Southeast Asia
Labour market implications of the energy transition: Indonesia case study
The green transition in agriculture: Labour implications of a conversion to organic rice
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