Risk governance

OECD Reviews of Risk Management Policies


The OECD reviews risk management policies in countries as a part of its work on effective governance policies for risk management. The lessons-learned from these country experiences can be used to develop criteria for managing large-scale hazards and threats.



Review of Risk Management Policies: Morocco

This study analyses initiatives undertaken in Morocco to support the management of critical risks. It covers steps taken by central government and local authorities, research centres, the private sector, and civil society. It focuses particularly on questions relating to the governance of risks, co-ordination, and the engagement of key stakeholders.

Boosting Resilience Bookcover

Boosting Resilience through Innovative Risk Governance

This report examines what countries have achieved in terms of strengthening resilience through better risk management and identifies persisting challenges. It focuses on the importance of creating an institutional environment that engages all stakeholders and allows them to build resilience against future shocks. This report has contributed to the development of the OECD Recommendation on the Governance of Critical Risks.

 Étude de lOCDE sur la gestion des risques dinondation : la Seine en Île-de-France 2014

Étude sur la gestion des risques d'inondation: la Seine en Île-de-France, 2014

Cette étude a évalué qu’une inondation majeure de la Seine pourrait affecter 5 millions de citoyens de la métropole francilienne et causer jusque 30 milliards d’euros de dommages directs. La croissance, l’emploi et les finances publiques pourraient être aussi affectés.

La Revue de l’OCDE sur le risque d’inondation de la Seine en Ile-de-France - réalisée à la demande de l’Établissement Public Territorial de Bassin Seine Grands Lacs, en partenariat avec le Ministère de l’Écologie et le Conseil régional d’Île-de-France -  recommande aux élus locaux de travailler à accroître la conscience du risque des citoyens et des entreprises afin d’améliorer la résilience de la métropole aux inondations.



OECD Reviews of Risk Management Policies: Mexico 2013

Review of the Mexican National Civil Protection System, 2013

This review of Mexico's civil protection system looks at the coordination of multiple actors across the central government, public and private industries, and state and local governments for the effective management of hurricanes, earthquakes and floods.

OECD Reviews of Risk Management Policies: Italy 2010

Review of the Italian National Civil Protection System, 2010

This review focuses on the Italian civil protection system and its means to prepare for and react to earthquakes, floods, tsunamis, landslides and even volcanoes. The Italian National Civil Protection Service can rapidly mobilise operational resources for emergency management and recovery both at home, throughout Europe and around the world. Its components constantly research known hazards to better understand and model vulnerabilities, while technical experts co-operate in real time to monitor events as they unfold and operate the early warning systems. These professionals are supported by a highly organised and motivated volunteer service unseen elsewhere in OECD countries. What makes these many parts of the civil protection system work as one effective whole, however, is its governance structure under the direct authority of the Italian Prime Minister.  

Recent years have seen a steep increase in the frequency and economic impacts of disasters, and Italy has been no exception. In addition to increased seasonal variance linked to climate change, the devastating earthquakes around L’Aquilla in 2009 make Italy a case study for policy-makers, emergency management practitioners, academics and international organisations who are searching for solutions, notably in the areas of disaster damage reduction policies. The Italian civil protection system offers a rich source of best practices for their consideration. The National Department of Civil Protection in particular, as the hub of the National Civil Protection Service, provides a model of professionalism and leadership. The review report also identifies many challenges facing the Italian civil protection system and areas where improvements are still needed.


Étude de lOCDE sur la gestion des risques dinondation: Bassin de la Loire, France 2010

Bassin de la Loire, France: La Gestion des risques d'inondation, 2010

Les évolutions urbanistiques, démographiques, et même climatiques, ont un impact sur les questions auxquelles doivent répondre les pays de l’OCDE en matière de protection de la vie et du bien-être des citoyens ou de garantie de la continuité de l’activité économique. En France les plus grands risques naturels connus concernent les inondations. Alors que plusieurs politiques publiques sur la gestion des risques d’inondation sont adoptées, celles-ci sont mises en œuvre à différents niveaux administratifs. Dans cette étude de cas, le Programme de l'OCDE sur l’avenir analyse une gestion intégrée dans le bassin de la Loire et examine les défis rencontrés. Au nombre des questions les plus cruciales figurent la concertation des parties-prenantes, l’investissement dans l’entretien des digues et le changement climatique.



 OECD Reviews of Risk Management Policies: Japan 2009

Japan: Large-Scale Floods and Earthquakes 2009

Damages to economic assets resulting from natural disasters have soared in the past fifteen years, and climate change models forecast intensified exposure to extreme weather in many OECD countries. The occurrence of flooding in Europe for the period 1998-2006 more than doubled compared with 1990-1998, while in North America the spectre of hurricane season is an annual threat to coastal communities. Seismic risks remain a key concern for countries such as Mexico and Turkey, both of which have a perilous record of earthquakes. As economic assets and populations continue to concentrate in urban centres, the damages from such disasters will increasingly test emergency response capabilities and the public’s resilience. Governments at national, regional and local levels will need to efficiently and effectively manage a broad value chain of risk management policies to confront these challenges.

This OECD review of risk management policies focuses on Japan, a country whose geography, topography and climate subject it to serious natural hazards, especially seismic activity and typhoons. This report looks at how Japan monitors, prepares for and responds to floods and earthquakes. It identifies good practices and areas where improvements could be made. The case studies consider several issues of particular interest to policymakers, such as how to take climate change into account for long term policy planning related to large scale floods, and Japan’s unique earthquake insurance scheme for damages whose probability and impact are hard to accurately assess. Moreover, the report offers lessons that other countries can draw from on the integration of various phases in the risk management cycle - from risk assessment to disaster recovery.



OECD Reviews of Risk Management Policies: Sweden 2007

Sweden: The Safety of Older People, 2007

As the share of the population aged 65 and over grows rapidly in the next decades across most of the OECD, the number of fall-related injuries could rise dramatically, and with it, the strains on hospitals, medical services, social services and public budgets. This OECD review of risk management policies focuses on Sweden because, with the ageing of its society already at a quite advanced stage, it exemplifies many of the current and future problems that OECD countries face in addressing fall-related injuries and fatalities among the elderly. The report looks at Sweden's policies in the area of older people's safety and well-being, seeking out and identifying good practices and areas where improvements could be made. It offers lessons that other countries can also draw from. While the report underscores the importance of the management of fall accidents, it also emphasizes the more general point that multidisciplinary and forward-looking approaches to safety and risk are essential for any policy concerning older people.



OECD Reviews of Risk Management Policies: Norway 2006 

Norway: Information Security, 2006

The development of information and communication technologies and networks, and in particular that of the Internet, has gone hand in hand with the emergence of new types of malevolent actions called cyber-crime: viruses, worms, Trojan horses, and the like. While a number of factors make a strong case for governmental action in the area of information security, there are also important limits to what governments can achieve. This review, the first in a series of risk management policy reviews being conducted by the OECD, identifies areas of good practice in Norway's policies for information security, as well as areas where improvements could be made. For areas that could benefit from improvement, it proposes opportunities for action and, when possible, suggests alternatives.



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