Share

Australia

 

 

Key Links

 

Recent Initiatives

There has been six alerts issued since 2002 on the newly identified risks of PFAS, including recommendations to manage these risks as well as updates on our PFAS work, and plans for future work.

Australia has assessed the risks of more than 200 PFAS chemicals available for use in Australia, focusing on PFOS and PFOA and their direct and indirect precursors (other chemicals that break down in the environment to form PFOS and PFOA). The risks of related chemicals including shorter chain PFAS that may be used as replacements for PFOS and PFOA has also been assessed (see more information here). 

Overview of risk reduction approaches

Per- and polyfluoroalkyl substance (PFASs) are not manufactured in Australia. Australia’s approach to risk reduction is a combination of voluntary and regulatory actions focused on reducing the use and import of some PFASs (i.e. long-chain non-polymer PFASs). Australia’s approaches do not address manufactured items (articles).

The regulatory approach, implemented under the Industrial Chemicals (Notification and Assessment) Act of 1989 (the ICNA Act), requires industry to provide toxicity data for new substances including PFASs or products containing new PFASs being introduced into Australia. Based on the level of toxicity and environmental persistence, the National Industrial Chemicals Notification and Assessment Scheme (NICNAS) recommends restrictions on how these substances can and cannot be used.

Assessment of new and existing PFASs result in recommendations for the management of import of new PFASs that have improved risk profiles but are still persistent. The ICNA Act also requires the introducers of new PFASs to inform NICNAS of any changes in circumstances that would affect the results of existing NICNAS risk assessments on these chemicals.

The voluntary approaches include raising awareness of industry of the hazards of the chemicals and monitoring the manufacture, import, and use of PFASs. PFASs use is also limited by Air Services Australia, a government-owned corporation that provides air traffic control management; it has transitioned away from fluorinated firefighting foam to non-fluorinated firefighting foam including the destruction of remaining stockpiles.

To measure benefits associated with the implementation of these approaches, NICNAS conducted a survey in 2008 to collect use and import data  on PFASs (specifically non-polymer PFSAs). The survey indicated an increase in PFSAs and related compounds from previous years with substantial changes in the type of imports and the use patterns; it also indicated a switch to fluorotelomer-based substances and shorter chain PFSAs (i.e. PFBS). This trend represents a key challenge in the implementation of these risk reduction strategies given the lack of data on the long-term effects of short-chain PFSAs  and their degradation products.

In terms of successes to date, a study provided  strong evidence that there are decreasing serum PFOS and PFOA concentrations  in an Australian population from 2002-2011.

 

Table with key elements of risk reduction approaches

 

Action Path taken BEPs Implemented Category of PFASss addressed Articles covered? Life cycle stage(s) addressed Method of approach Public- private partnership encouraged? Level of constraint

Six alerts issued since 2002 containing information on manufacture,import and use of PFASs in Australia, as well as regulatory information on PFCAs and PFSAs

Increase awareness for industry and public Minimisation of PFASs used Long-chain PFSAs; PFCAs and related substances No, except for releases from articles Import, fomulation, and use Voluntary No None

Assessment recommendations for new and existing PFASs being re-assessed, that are persistent as part of a replacement strategy to phase out longer chain PFASs

Manage the import of new PFCs that have improved risk profiles, but are still persistent Minimisation of PFASs used PFASs with 4 or more perfluorinated carbons No Chemical introduction; product introduction; product use Voluntary No Reporting obligation regarding changes in use, volume or availability of new information

Transition from operational fluorinated firefighting foam to non-fluorinated foam, including destruction of remaining stockpiles, in the aviation industry

Encourage phase-out Minimisation of PFASs used PFASs in current generation AFFF (including PFOS as by-product) No Product use; waste stream Policy approach No No information available
Additional data requirements for pre-market entry applications fornew PFCs Assess the risks of new PFASs prior to introduction Minimisation of PFASs used Fluorotelomer- based substances No Manufacture, use, sale, and import Regulatory No Application requirements for companies

 

Additional ressources: IMAP Assessment of Perfluorochemicals

Perfluorobutanesulfonate (PFBS) and its direct precursors

Human health tier II assessment Environment tier II assessment

Indirect Precursors of Perfluorobutanesulfonate (PFBS)

Human health tier II assessment Environment tier II assessment

Perfluorooctanoic Acid (PFOA) and its Direct Precursors

Human health tier II assessment Environment tier II assessment

Perfluorooctanoic sulfonate (PFOS) and its Direct Precursors

Human health tier II assessment Environment tier II assessment
Perfluoroalkyl sulfonates (PFAS) (>C8) and their direct precursors Human health tier II assessment Environment tier II assessment
Perfluoroalkane sulfonates (PFSA) (C5-C7) and their direct precursors Human health tier II assessment Environment tier II assessment
Short chain perfluorocarboxylic acids and their direct precursors Human health tier II assessment Environment tier II assessment
Indirect Precursors of Perfluorooctane Sulfonate (PFOS)
Human health tier II assessment Environment tier II assessment
Indirect Precursors of Perfluorooctanoic Acid (PFOA) Human health tier II assessment Environment tier II assessment
Perfluoroheptanoic acid and its direct precursors
Human health tier II assessment Environment tier II assessment
Indirect precursors of long-chain perfluorocarboxylic acids (PFCAs) Human health tier II assessment Environment tier II assessment

Indirect precursors of short chain perfluorocarboxylic acids (PFCAs)

Human health tier II assessment Environment tier II assessment
Indirect precursors of perfluoroalkane sulfonic acids (PFSA) (C5-C7) Human health tier II assessment Environment tier II assessment
Direct Precursors to Perfluorocyclohexane Sulfonate and Related Perfluoroalkylcyclohexane Sulfonates
Human health tier II assessment Environment tier II assessment
Perfluorinated derivatives of phosphonic and phosphinic acids Human health tier II assessment
6:2 Fluorotelomer siloxanes and silicones
Human health tier II assessment
6:2 Fluorotelomer sulfonate derivatives Human health tier II assessment
Carbamic acid, [2-(sulfothio)ethyl]-, C-(.gamma.-.omega.-perfluoro-C6-9-alkyl) esters, monosodium salts (95370-51-7) Human health tier II assessment

 

Related Documents