Scientific Question Categories




Explain phenomena scientifically to recognise, offer and evaluate explanations for a range of natural and technological phenomena.

Evaluate and design scientific enquiry to describe and appraise scientific investigations and propose ways of addressing questions scientifically.

Interpret data and evidence scientifically to analyse and evaluate data, claims and arguments in a variety of representations and draw appropriate scientific conclusions.





Content knowledge refers to the knowledge of theories, explanatory ideas, information and facts

Procedural knowledge refers to an understanding of how such knowledge has been derived, the knowledge about the concepts and procedures that are essential for scientific enquiry, and that underpin the collection, analysis and interpretation of scientific data.

Epistemic knowledge refers to the nature of that knowledge, an understanding of the nature and origin of knowledge in science, and reflects students’ capacity to think and engage in reasoned discourse as scientists do. Epistemic knowledge is required to understand the distinction between observations, facts, hypotheses, models and theories, but also to understand why certain procedures, such as experiments, are central to establishing knowledge in science.





Knowledge can also be classified according to the major scientific fields to which it pertains: physical systems, living systems, and earth and space systems.





Three context categories identify the broad areas of life in which the test problems may arise: “personal”, which are contexts related to students’ and families’ daily lives; “local/national”, which are contexts related to the community in which students live; and “global”, which are contexts defined by life across the world.


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