Migration Policy Debates and Data Briefs




In 4 pages, the Migration Policy Debates offer a comprehensive overview of latest developments in policies that deal with migration management and integration.

The Migration Data Briefs bring statistical evidence from recent trends.

The Inform series are jointly published by the OECD and the European Migration Network (EMN).

The Policy Briefs bringing together data, analysis and recommendations address current issues in migration policy.




  • What we know about the skills and early labour market outcomes of refugees from Ukraine (Policy Brief, January 2023) This policy response outlines the existing evidence on the socio-economic profiles and labour market integration of Ukrainian refugees in OECD countries as well as relevant policies to further support labour market integration.  Findings suggest that the labour market inclusion of Ukrainian refugees has been faster compared to other refugee groups, but that skills mismatches are widespread.

  • The potential contribution of Ukrainian refugees to the labour force in European host countries (Policy Brief, July 2022) This policy brief reviews the distribution of Ukrainian refugees across European countries and their demographic characteristics. It discusses the existing evidence about the labour market integration of refugees, and applies this information to the case of Ukrainian refugees to provide estimates of the number of active and employed Ukrainian refugees in European countries by the end of 2022 and compares these results to the impact of previous large inflows of refugees, in particular the 2014-17 arrivals.
  • Housing support for Ukrainian refugees in receiving countries (Policy Brief, July 2022) This policy brief presents an overview of specific policy decisions taken by these countries regarding the short-term housing of refugees from Ukraine and challenges identified to date. It seeks to identify relevant considerations for those countries that are beginning to adapt their thinking regarding Ukrainians’ prospects for longer-term stays. 
  • What are the risks and rewards of start-up visas? (MPD No. 28, July 2022) This Migration Policy Debates provides an overview of start-up visa programs across OECD nations and their different methods for attracting and selecting migrant founders, as well as some initial results of these programmes. The brief then examines whether programme outcomes are being properly evaluated to ensure they are delivering on their strategic intent.
  • Should OECD countries develop new Digital Nomad Visas? (MPD No. 27, July 2022) This Migration Policy Debate explains this new residence status and provides a state of play of the programmes for digital nomads and remote workers in OECD countries. It also identifies potential added value and asks whether the visas are effective in achieving their stated aims, in light of concerns.
  • Moroccan emigrants in OECD countries: what new dynamics? (MDB No. 8, March 2022; in French only) This note presents the latest trends in migration from Morocco to OECD countries, the socio-demographic characteristics of emigrants, as well as their methods of integration in the countries of destination.
  • Ivorian, Malian and Senegalese emigrants in OECD countries: an overview (MDB No. 7, March 2022; in French only) This note, prepared on the occasion of the publication of the reports on Ivorian, Malian and Senegalese emigrants, in the OECD Talents Abroad series, presents the latest trends in migration from these three countries to OECD countries, the socio-demographic characteristics of emigrants, as well as their methods of integration in the countries of destination.

  • How to strengthen the integration of migrant women? (MPD No. 25, November 2020) This edition summarises OECD work on how to strengthen the integration of migrant women. It provides an overview of challenges faced by migrant women, notably those in family migration pathways. It depicts migrant women’s education level, their labour market integration, their reconciliation of work and family life as well as the associations with the outcomes of children of migrants and attitudes on gender equality and includes a number of policy implications.
  • Maintaining labour migration in essential sectors in times of pandemic (Inform No. 3, October 2020) This brief examines whether workers in certain occupational sectors – essential or otherwise – were exempted from general mobility restrictions at the external and internal borders of the EU or in non-EU OECD countries, resulting from policies to contain the pandemic.
  • What improves the sustainability of the reintegration component in AVRR? (MPD No. 24, October 2020) This edition summarises the key finding of the first OECD multi country peer review of reintegration assistance, including Assisted Voluntary Return and Reintegration programmes (AVRR), in 8 destination countries and 3 origin countries. The review looks at the conditions under which these programmes can not only support the sustainable reintegration of individual returning migrants but satisfy broader policy goals affecting host and origin communities.
  • What are the Possible Policy Responses to Future Irregular Migration? (MPD No. 22, January 2020) This edition provides a comprehensive review of alternative approaches for the prevention and deterrence of irregular migration. Many of these approaches are widely implemented, while some are recent and still under development. Others hold promise for addressing future challenges.
  • How to make Labour Migration Management Future-Ready?  (MPD No. 21, January 2020) This edition outlines a number of innovations in labour migration management as well as their implementation scope. It aims to support policy makers in analysing, developing and applying their own innovative approaches to managing labour migration.
  • How resilient were OECD health care systems during the “refugee crisis”? (MPD No.17, November 2018). This edition reviews current challenges and good practices for making OECD health systems more resilient in the face of a refugee crisis, drawing from a debate at a joint OECD, the World Bank and the Center for Mediterranean Integration conference on “Human Resources for Health (HRH): Integration of Refugees into Host Community Health Systems”.
  • Can we anticipate future migration flows? (MPD No.16, June 2018). This edition brings key lessons learnt from the joint EASO-OECD conference “From panic to planning: unpacking the policy toolbox to anticipate migration trends” (Paris, June 2016) for improving information systems to reinforce the preparedness of reception and management systems.
  • Migrant women and European labour markets (MDB No.1, December 2017). This Migration Data Brief explores how migration has shaped the labour force in European countries during the period 2005-2015, paying a special attention to the contribution of migrant women. 
  • Can we put an end to human smuggling? (MPD No.9, December 2015). This edition scrutinises the factors that facilitate human trafficking, as well as the smuggling routes to OECD countries. It synthesises available evidence and reviews existing policy tools for tackling such crime.


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