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  • 23-December-2020

    English

    Environment and Regional Trade Agreements

    The OECD is investigating the trends of environmental provisions in Regional Trade Agreements (RTAs) and their effects on the environment since 2005. Recent work focuses on how governments actually implement these environmental commitments and whether they have had an impact on environmental endpoints and on how to incorporate environmental objectives across these agreements for better policy coherence.

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  • 22-December-2020

    English

    Greening regional trade agreements on non-tariff measures through technical barriers to trade and regulatory co-operation

    This report explores how regional trade agreements (RTAs) can serve as a vehicle to reflect environmental objectives in chapters and articles dealing with technical barriers to trade and regulatory co-operation. In particular, the analysis builds upon examples from seven recent RTAs that aim at deep economic integration, and explores ways to further incorporate environmental objectives. The report identifies a range of options to reconcile economic and environmental objectives, related to areas of technical barriers to trade and regulatory co-operation, by incorporating environmental considerations as overarching principles, provisions on regulatory impact assessments and ex post evaluations, non-regression clauses, and dedicated chapters and sectoral annexes.
  • 18-December-2020

    English

    Work country programmes and National Policy Dialogues on water in Eastern Europe, Caucasus and Central Asia

    The regional component of the EU Water Initiative (EUWI) focuses on Eastern Europe, the Caucasus and Central Asia (EECCA). It supports work of the European Neighbourhood Policy and of the EU-Central Asia Platform for Environment and Water Cooperation, and helps to promote the progressive approximation to EU water policies, particularly to the EU Water Framework Directive, in EECCA countries.

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  • 18-December-2020

    English

    EU Water Initiative (EUWI): Water Policy Reforms in Eastern Europe, the Caucasus and Central Asia (EECCA)

    The objective of the European Union Water Initiative is to create the conditions for mobilising all available EU resources (human & financial), and to co-ordinate them to achieve the water-related Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) in partner countries. This initiative was launched at the World Summit for Sustainable Development in Johannesburg in 2002.

  • 18-December-2020

    English

    Towards Water Security in Belarus - A Synthesis Report

    This report presents the results of collaboration on improving water security in Belarus, between the beneficiary country, the OECD and its partners implementing the EU-funded European Union Water Initiative Plus project. It provides an overview of the composition and distribution of the country’s water resources, including the particular challenges facing different regions (oblasts), and lays out the policy responses that Belarus has taken and planned to progress its overarching policy objective of ensuring water security within the framework of the future national Water Strategy in the Context of Climate Change for the Period until 2030. The report also provides an assessment of potential opportunities to boost water security in Belarus by supporting the country’s ongoing water policy reform agenda.
  • 18-December-2020

    English

    Addressing the COVID-19 and climate crises - Potential economic recovery pathways and their implications for climate change mitigation, NDCs and broader socio-economic goals

    This paper provides decision-makers with a framework for prioritising different economic, social and environmental goals and analysing the options available to achieve them. To this end, it develops three stylised COVID-19 recovery pathways ('Rebound', 'Decoupling' and 'Wider well-being') that differ in the extent to which they encompass greenhouse gas (GHG) emission reductions and the integration of mitigation and wider well-being outcomes or, broadly equivalently, SDGs. A number of real-world examples of COVID-19 recovery measures in the surface transport and residential sectors were identified, and the paper maps these measures onto these three stylised pathways. The paper finds a wide divergence in the environmental and social impacts of COVID-19 recovery measures developed to date, with several countries putting in place measures that correspond to all three pathways. The nature and pace of economic recovery in different countries and in aggregate will have important implications for existing, updated and new Nationally Determined Contributions (NDCs) under the Paris Agreement, and the paper also highlights the possible impact of the COVID-19 recovery measures being put in place on NDCs– including on the ambition of both current and future NDCs. The paper concludes that it will be important for governments to improve their understanding of the impact of their recovery measures across multiple policy dimensions (economic, social, environmental) as well as across different time periods (short and long-term) and spatial scales.
  • 11-December-2020

    English

    Reporting national GHG inventories through Common Reporting Tables (CRTs) - An assessment of CRT reporting options through worked examples

    The Modalities, Procedures and Guidelines (MPGs) included in Decision 18/CMA.1 adopted at COP24 in 2018 require all Parties to the Paris Agreement to report national greenhouse gas (GHG) inventories using 'common reporting tables' (CRTs). The same decision requests the Subsidiary Body for Scientific and Technological Advice (SBSTA) is to develop CRTs for consideration and adoption by COP26. This paper focuses on key issues related to the potential structure of the CRTs and approaches to filling them in. The paper assesses different CRT reporting scenarios through worked examples. Overall, the paper finds that all the tables contained in the set of Common Reporting Formats (CRFs) currently in use by Annex I Parties provide a valuable starting point for the development of CRTs. A number of improvements and adjustments, however, need to be applied to current CRFs to better reflect reporting guidance outlined in the MPGs. This paper finds that it is important to ensure that the CRTs are designed in a way that allows for a reporting that is as standardised as possible. This may include allowing for the use of standardised reporting elements (e.g. notation keys) and amending the tables according to a new, commonly agreed structure to allow for the reporting of new reporting elements. Using a common format while also facilitating standardised reporting can positively affect a number of processes, including the technical expert review and automated processing of information, thereby promoting transparency, comparability and consistency of GHG-inventory reporting.
  • 10-December-2020

    English

    How Urban Delivery Vehicles can Boost Electric Mobility

    This report presents policies and private sector initiatives for the electrification of urban delivery vehicles. Electric vehicles have low operational costs and the high mileage of delivery vehicles maximises net savings from converting a fleet. Insights on the total cost of ownership and the environmental footprint of electric fleets highlight broader benefits of electrification programmes for commercial vehicles.
  • 7-décembre-2020

    Français

    Des mesures doivent être prises pour réduire les émissions de particules dues à l’usure des pièces automobiles et des revêtements de chaussée

    L’usure des freins, des pneus et des revêtements routiers constituera bientôt la première source d’émissions atmosphériques de particules liées au traffic routier, devant les gaz d’échappement. C’est ce qui ressort d’un nouveau rapport de l’OCDE.

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  • 7-December-2020

    English

    Non-exhaust Particulate Emissions from Road Transport - An Ignored Environmental Policy Challenge

    Non-exhaust emissions of particulate matter constitute a little-known but rising share of emissions from road traffic and have significant negative impacts on public health. This report synthesizes the current state of knowledge about the nature, causes, and consequences of non-exhaust particulate emissions. It also projects how particulate matter emissions from non-exhaust sources may evolve in future years and reflects on policy instrument mixes that can address this largely ignored environmental issue.
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