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  • 25-octobre-2021

    Français

    Scénarios prospectifs du financement climatique fourni et mobilisé par les pays développés en 2021-2025 - Note technique

    Cette note technique présente deux scénarios prospectifs pour le financement climatique fourni et mobilisé par les pays développés dans le cadre de l'objectif de 100 milliards de dollars établi dans le cadre de la CCNUCC. L'analyse du financement climatique public fourni est basée sur les intentions déclarés, les promesses et les objectifs des différents pays développés et banques multilatérales de développement, tels que soumis dans le contexte spécifique de cet exercice. Elle s'appuie également sur des étapes analytiques et des hypothèses méthodologiques pour rendre ces informations compatibles avec le cadre comptable et le périmètre de l'objectif. Les deux scénarios comprennent des hypothèses complémentaires sur le niveau de financement privé mobilisé par ce financement public et sur les crédits à l'exportation liés au climat. Le Canada et l'Allemagne ont demandé à l'OCDE de réaliser cette analyse afin d’informer le Plan de Mise en Œuvre de l'objectif de 100 milliards USD préparé par les pays développés en amont de la COP26.
  • 22-October-2021

    English

    Environment Focus Blog: Building resilience to natural disaster risk in agriculture

    During the last few decades, the frequency and intensity of natural hazard-induced disasters affecting agriculture have increased dramatically, largely due to climate change. This blog explores the need to transform agricultural and related policies to move from coping to a resilience approach.

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  • 22-octobre-2021

    Français

    Accord conclu à l'OCDE pour mettre fin à l’octroi de crédits à l’exportation pour les centrales électriques conventionnelles au charbon

    Afin de contribuer à l’effort commun pour faire face au changement climatique et dans le contexte de la prochaine COP26, les Participants à l'Arrangement de l’OCDE sur les crédits à l'exportation bénéficiant d'un soutien public sont convenus de mettre fin à leur soutien aux centrales électriques conventionnelles au charbon.

    Documents connexes
  • 20-October-2021

    English

    Preventing single-use plastic waste - Implications of different policy approaches

    Single-use plastics constitute approximately half of global plastic waste generation. Their use in consumer goods and packaging has been the focus of recent waste prevention policy due to the importance of the volumes of waste generated and the frequency with which these materials are littered. To address several externalities that emerge across the life-cycle of single-use plastics, multiple policies can be combined to constitute an effective policy mix. In several markets, market-based policy instruments and policy bans have helped to curb waste generation and littering of single-use plastics. However, the effectiveness of these interventions depends to an important extent on whether environmentally preferable substitute materials or products are available, and on whether the measures are effectively enforced. Effective policy intervention requires a policy mix that covers single-use plastics, as well as their substitutes, and that includes an emphasis on monitoring and enforcement, in order to help minimise burden-shifting of environmental impacts.
  • 20-October-2021

    English

    Policies to Reduce Microplastics Pollution in Water - Focus on Textiles and Tyres

    Microplastics are ubiquitous in the natural environment. This report synthesises the current state of knowledge on the sources, fate and risks of microplastics pollution. It then focuses on two sources of microplastics pollution, textile products and vehicle tyres, due to their substantial contribution to global microplastics emissions and currently largely absent policy frameworks to mitigate them. Several best practices and technological solutions can be implemented along the lifecycle of textile products and vehicle tyres to mitigate releases to the environment. The report proposes policy insights on measures and strategies that could help minimise microplastics emitted unintentionally from products and their potential impacts on human health and ecosystems.
  • 19-October-2021

    English

    2021 Annual Meeting of the GREEN Action Task Force

    The 2021 Annual meeting of the GREEN Action Task Force took place from 12-13 October in the form of a virtual online meeting. The conference provided an opportunity for members and partners to discuss their progress in implementing the GREEN Action Task Force work programme.

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  • 15-October-2021

    English

    Adverse Outcome Pathway on histone deacetylase inhibition leading to testicular atrophy

    The present AOP describes inhibition of histone deacetylase resulting in testicular atrophy. Histone deacetylase inhibitors (HDIs) are approved as anti-cancer drugs since HDIs have apoptotic effects in cancer cells. The intracellular mechanisms of induction of the spermatocyte apoptosis by HDIs are suggested as histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibition as MIE, histone acetylation increase, disrupted cell cycle, apoptosis, and spermatocyte depletion as KEs. The adverse outcome has been defined as testicular atrophy. The HDIs inhibit deacetylation of the histone, leading to an increase in histone acetylation. The apoptosis induced by disrupted cell cycle leads to spermatocyte depletion and testis atrophy. Testicular toxicity is of interest for human health risk assessment especially in terms of reproductive and developmental toxicity, however, the testicular toxicity has not been fully elucidated. This AOP may be one of the pathways induced by HDIs, which suggests the pathway networks of protein hyperacetylations.
  • 15-October-2021

    English

    Adverse Outcome Pathway on inhibition of calcineurin activity leading to impaired T-cell dependent antibody response

    The present AOP describes the inhibition of calcineurin activity resulting in impaired T-Cell Dependent Antibody Response (TDAR). Calcineurin (CN), a protein phosphatase, is known to impair immune function when its phosphatase activation is inhibited. CN inhibitors (CNIs) inhibit CN phosphatase activity to suppress many kinds of immune functions and have been used in the medical domain to prevent hyper immune reactions. However, CNIs are reported to also induce immunosuppression-derived adverse effects such as increased frequency and/or severity of infections and increased tumor incidences. CNIs might affect several T-cell derived immune functions to induce compromised host. Among the affected immune functions, T-cell dependent antibody response (TDAR) is an important factor to resist infections and thought to be the useful endpoint on evaluating immunotoxicity of chemicals; therefore, this AOP describes the linkage between the inhibition of CN activity and impairment of TDAR.
  • 15-October-2021

    English

    Policies for a Carbon-Neutral Industry in the Netherlands

    This report presents a comprehensive assessment of the policy instruments adopted by the Netherlands to reach carbon neutrality in its manufacturing sector by 2050. The analysis illustrates the strength of combining a strong commitment to raising carbon prices with ambitious technology support, uncovers the pervasiveness of competitiveness provisions, and highlights the trade-off between short-term emissions cuts and longer-term technology shift. The Netherlands’ carbon levy sets an ambitious price trajectory to 2030, but is tempered by extensive preferential treatment to energy-intensive users, yielding a highly unequal carbon price across firms and sectors. The country’s technology support focuses on the cost-effective deployment of low-carbon options, which ensures least-cost decarbonisation in the short run but favours relatively mature technologies. The report offers recommendations for policy adjustments to reach the country’s carbon neutrality objective, including the gradual removal of exemptions, enhanced support for emerging technologies and greater visibility over future infrastructure plans.
  • 15-October-2021

    English

    Adverse Outcome Pathway on Cyp2E1 activation leading to liver cancer

    The present AOP describes the prolonged activation of Cyp2E1 resulting in liver cancer. Cyp2E1 is a cytochrome P450 mono-oxygenase that bioactivates over 85 substrates, thereby creating electrophilic metabolites and oxidative stress. Mono-oxygenation of these substrates to their reactive metabolites, and the accompanying oxidative stress produced during metabolism, pose health risks because they lead to hepatotoxicity and, often, to liver cancer. The MIE occurs when Cyp2E1 binds a substrate. The Cyp2E1 catalytic cycle is prone to decoupling, which produces oxidative stress (KE1), and mono-oxidation of substrates produces reactive metabolites. Both reactive oxygen species and metabolites cause cytotoxicity (KE2). However, following injury, the liver is able to regenerate itself through an increase in cellular proliferation (KE3). Under conditions of chronic activation of Cyp2E1, excessive chronic increases in levels of reactive oxygen species and cell death, and subsequent dysregulated cellular proliferation, leads to tumour formation (AO).
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