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  • 10-mai-2021

    Français

    Examens environnementaux de l'OCDE: Irlande 2021 (Version abrégée)

    Au cours de la décennie écoulée, l’Irlande a realisé des progrès inégaux en matière de découplage entre les principales pressions environnementales et l’activité économique. Les émissions de gaz à effet de serre, la production de déchets et la pollution de l’eau par les éléments nutritifs ont augmenté avec la forte croissance économique entre le milieu des années 2010 et le début de la pandémie de COVID-19. Le peuplement dispersé place, de loin, le transport routier en tête des modes de transports. Les politiques en matière de climat, d'économie circulaire et de biodiversité ont pris un nouvel élan, avec des initiatives politiques ambitieuses et de grands plans d'investissement public. Il convient de les mettre en œuvre sans tarder pour atténuer les pressions grandissantes exercées par l'intensification des pratiques agricoles, le développement démographique, l'étalement urbain et le trafic routier. Il est essentiel d'encourager les entreprises et les ménages à agir. Il faut pour cela fournir des signaux de prix cohérents pour l'utilisation de l'énergie et des ressources naturelles et pour mieux gérer la demande de déplacements, tout en tenant compte de l'accessibilité financière, de l'impact sur l'emploi et des disparités régionales. Ce rapport est le troisième Examen environnemental de l’Irlande. Il évalue les progrès réalisés en matière de croissance verte et de développement durable, avec un chapitre spécial consacré à la mobilité et au transport de marchandises durables. Cette version abrégée contient le résumé, ainsi que l’évaluation et les recommandations officielles du rapport, qui reposent sur les trois chapitres consacrés aux évolutions et faits récents, à la gouvernance et à la croissance verte, ainsi que sur le chapitre qui examinent en détail la soutenabilité de la mobilité et du transport de marchandises. La version intégrale du rapport est disponible en anglais sur le site de l’OCDE.
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  • 7-May-2021

    English

    To what extent can blockchain help development co-operation actors meet the 2030 Agenda?

    Blockchain is mainstreaming, but the number of blockchain for development use-cases with proven success beyond the pilot stage remain relatively few. This paper outlines key blockchain concepts and implications in order to help policymakers reach realistic conclusions when considering its use. The paper surveys the broad landscape of blockchain for development to identify where the technology can optimise development impact and minimise harm. It subsequently critically examines four successful applications, including the World Food Programme’s Building Blocks, Oxfam’s UnBlocked Cash project, KfW’s TruBudget and Seso Global. As part of the on-going work co-ordinated by the OECD’s Blockchain Policy Centre, this paper asserts that post-COVID-19, Development Assistance Committee (DAC) donors and their development partners have a unique opportunity to shape blockchain’s implementation.
  • 5-May-2021

    English

    Effective Carbon Rates 2021 - Pricing Carbon Emissions through Taxes and Emissions Trading

    Carbon pricing very effectively encourages the shift of production and consumption choices towards low and zero carbon options that is required to limit climate change. Are countries using this tool to its full potential? This report measures the pricing of CO2-emissions from energy use in 44 OECD and G20 countries, covering around 80% of world emissions. The analysis takes a comprehensive view of carbon prices, including fuel excise taxes, carbon taxes and tradable emission permit prices. The 'carbon pricing score' measures how close the 44 countries, together as well as individually, are to the goal of pricing all energy related carbon emissions at current and forward-looking benchmark values for carbon costs. The report highlights the structure of effective carbon rates across countries and sectors in 2018 and discusses change compared to 2012 and 2015. It also provides an outlook on recent trends in emissions trading in China and the European Union.
  • 4-May-2021

    English

    Exploring the impact of shared mobility services on CO2

    Policy action to avoid the impending societal costs of climate change is particularly warranted in transport sector, which is responsible for 30% of greenhouse gas emissions in OECD countries. To design appropriate interventions in this sector, policy makers should account for the recent emergence of shared mobility services in urban areas and their potential advantages in terms of emissions mitigation. This study estimates the impact that the widespread uptake of shared mobility services could have on the carbon footprint of urban transport. To this end, it simulates the share of each transport mode and aggregate emissions from passenger transport in 247 cities across 29 OECD countries between 2015 and 2050. The analysis indicates that they have the potential to eliminate, on average, 6.3% of urban passenger transport emissions by the end of this period.
  • 29-avril-2021

    Français

    Blog : La résilience climatique est indispensable à un système de financement durable

    Ce blog traite de l'exposition du secteur financier aux risques climatiques physiques et définit trois priorités sur la manière dont la finance durable peut soutenir les efforts visant à renforcer la résilience au changement climatique.

    Documents connexes
  • 28-April-2021

    English

    The Economic Benefits of Air Quality Improvements in Arctic Council Countries

    The Arctic is a vital region that helps preserve the balance of the global climate. The Arctic environment is particularly sensitive to short-lived climate pollutants, including black carbon, due to their strong warming effect. With ambitious policy action to reduce air pollutants, Arctic Council countries would obtain a positive effect on health and the environment throughout their territory, while also helping to slow down climate change by reducing emissions of black carbon. This report calls for ambitious policy action to reduce air pollution in Arctic Council countries, highlighting the environmental, health, and economic benefits from policy action.
  • 27-April-2021

    English

    Blog: Can modelling help better understand the transition to a more circular economy?

    This blog highlights how large-scale modelling can shed light on the detailed interactions between economic activity and materials use, and how policies can change those links to ensure a more circular future where economic growth does not have to mean increased materials use.

    Related Documents
  • 27-April-2021

    English

    Assessment of Investment Needs for Climate Action in Armenia

    Estimates of how much countries need to invest to reach their climate targets can support their budget planning and their capital raising strategies. Comprehensive assessments of investment needs for climate action up to 2030 and beyond are missing in the South Caucasus countries as well as in most OECD member countries. The OECD has estimated investment costs in gross fixed assets for around 50 climate-related actions in Armenia.

    Related Documents
  • 23-April-2021

    English

    Towards common GHG inventory reporting tables for Biennial Transparency Reports - Experiences with tools for generating and using reporting tables under the UNFCCC

    Under the Enhanced Transparency Framework (ETF) of the Paris Agreement, Parties will be required to report information on national GHG inventories using a set of Common Reporting Tables (CRTs). The CRTs can provide an important source of data at the international and national levels. While a final set of tables has not yet been agreed upon, there is an emerging convergence around the view that the Common Reporting Format (CRF) tables that Annex I Parties currently use to report national GHG inventories could serve as a starting point for the development of CRTs. To support ongoing discussions, this paper provides details on the structure and functions of the existing CRF tables and the CRF Reporter software used to generate the tables, as well as some countries’ experiences with using this current system. To facilitate the transition towards reporting using CRTs, the paper also provides an overview of other tools that could support countries in reporting GHG inventories through CRTs and outlines a set of key issues that could be considered in the transparency negotiations. The paper concludes that the use of CRF tables and a CRF Reporter reduces the reporting burden on Parties – and that this could also be a significant benefit of CRTs and a CRT reporter. The paper also highlights that countries’ experience shows that effective IT arrangements can facilitate the reporting process but that as developing countries have no prior experience with the use of CRF tables and the CRF Reporter, the transition to a new CRT system may need capacity-building support, including for setting up suitable IT arrangements.
  • 22-April-2021

    English

    Revenue Statistics in Latin America and the Caribbean 2021

    This report compiles comparable tax revenue statistics over the period 1990-2019 for 27 Latin American and Caribbean economies. Based on the OECD Revenue Statistics database, it applies the OECD methodology to countries in Latin America and the Caribbean to enable comparison of tax levels and tax structures on a consistent basis, both among the economies of the region and with other economies. This publication is jointly undertaken by the OECD Centre for Tax Policy and Administration, the OECD Development Centre, the Inter-American Center of Tax Administrations (CIAT), the Economic Commission for Latin America and the Caribbean (ECLAC) and the Inter-American Development Bank (IDB). The 2021 edition is produced with the support of the EU Regional Facility for Development in Transition for Latin America and the Caribbean, which results from joint work led by the European Union, the OECD and its Development Centre, and ECLAC.
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