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  • 1-November-2021

    English

    Managing Climate Risks, Facing up to Losses and Damages

    This report addresses the urgent issue of climate-related losses and damages. Climate change is driving fundamental changes to the planet with adverse impacts on human livelihoods and well-being, putting development gains at risk. The scale and extent of future risks for a given location is, however, subject to uncertainties in predicting complex climate dynamics as well as the impact of individual and societal decisions that determine future greenhouse gas emissions as well as patterns of socio-economic development and inequality. The report approaches climate-related losses and damages from a risk management perspective. It explores how climate change will play out in different geographies, over time, focusing on the three types of hazards: slow-onset changes such as sea-level rise; extreme events including heatwaves, extreme rainfall and drought; and the potential for large-scale non-linear changes within the climate system itself. The report explores approaches to reduce and manage risks with a focus on policy action, finance and the role of technology in supporting effective risk governance processes. Drawing on experiences from around the world, least developed countries and small island developing states in particular, the report highlights a number of good practices and points to ways forward.
  • 27-October-2021

    English

    eChemPortal: Global Portal to Information on Chemical Substances

    365 biocidal active substances records are now available in eChemPortal. The European Chemicals Agency database provides information on biocidal active substances approved, not approved or under assessment under the Biocidal Products Regulation (BPR). Users will find information on biocidal active substances manufactured or imported in Europe.

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  • 27-October-2021

    English

    Understanding reporting and review under Articles 6 and 13 of the Paris Agreement

    Reporting and review requirements under the Paris Agreement include provisions under Article 13 relating to the implementation and achievement of Parties’ Nationally Determined Contributions (NDCs). Draft texts relating to Article 6.2 relating to Parties’ use of cooperative approaches also include provisions on reporting and review. This document identifies and analyses issues related to the interplay of relevant reporting and review requirements under both Article 13 and Article 6 of the Paris Agreement, as it is important to improve complementarity and ensure consistency between the two sets of reporting and review provisions, as well as to meet the already-agreed principles governing transparency. Regarding reporting, the document highlights options for improving the clarity of the provisions concerning the timing, content, and frequency of the three required types of information under Article 6.2 guidance (i.e., the initial report, annual information, and regular information). Regarding Internationally Transferred Mitigation Outcomes (ITMOs), this document highlights several issues relating to timing and vintages that would need to be addressed to facilitate ITMO reporting and review implementation. Regarding review provisions, this document finds that draft A6.2 guidance could usefully provide further detail on some substantive aspects of the Article 6 review process, such as, e.g., clarifying roles of the Party, the TER team, and the secretariat in the review process.
  • 27-October-2021

    English

    Understanding countries’ net-zero emissions targets

    This paper analyses net-zero emissions targets adopted in law, proposed in legislation, or reflected in policy documents in 51 countries and the EU to better understand their characteristics, similarities and differences. It examines countries’ experiences with translating net-zero targets into near-term plans and analyses four case studies to show how countries develop and implement different pathways to net-zero. This paper also explores the potential role and associated risks, both for individual countries and globally, of using international carbon markets to help achieve countries’ net-zero targets. The paper concludes that countries are adopting diverse approaches to their net-zero targets and many details are currently unclear, including the balance between emission reductions, removals and the use of international carbon markets in reaching countries’ net-zero targets, and how this may change over the next few decades. The paper concludes that greater clarity on the scope, coverage and detail, in particular how countries plan to meet their net-zero commitments, is important to improve understanding of countries’ net-zero targets, how they interact with each other, and their overall implications for achieving the global temperature goal of the Paris Agreement.
  • 25-octobre-2021

    Français

    Scénarios prospectifs du financement climatique fourni et mobilisé par les pays développés en 2021-2025 - Note technique

    Cette note technique présente deux scénarios prospectifs pour le financement climatique fourni et mobilisé par les pays développés dans le cadre de l'objectif de 100 milliards de dollars établi dans le cadre de la CCNUCC. L'analyse du financement climatique public fourni est basée sur les intentions déclarés, les promesses et les objectifs des différents pays développés et banques multilatérales de développement, tels que soumis dans le contexte spécifique de cet exercice. Elle s'appuie également sur des étapes analytiques et des hypothèses méthodologiques pour rendre ces informations compatibles avec le cadre comptable et le périmètre de l'objectif. Les deux scénarios comprennent des hypothèses complémentaires sur le niveau de financement privé mobilisé par ce financement public et sur les crédits à l'exportation liés au climat. Le Canada et l'Allemagne ont demandé à l'OCDE de réaliser cette analyse afin d’informer le Plan de Mise en Œuvre de l'objectif de 100 milliards USD préparé par les pays développés en amont de la COP26.
  • 25-October-2021

    English

    Webinar Series on Testing and Assessment Methodologies

    On 18 October 2021, the OECD organised a webinar to discuss the implementation of the Defined Approaches on Skin Sensitisation for chemical safety in member countries. This webinar paved the way for companies and authorities to determine the environmental toxicity of chemicals without having to resort to animal testing.

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  • 22-October-2021

    English

    Environment Focus Blog: Building resilience to natural disaster risk in agriculture

    During the last few decades, the frequency and intensity of natural hazard-induced disasters affecting agriculture have increased dramatically, largely due to climate change. This blog explores the need to transform agricultural and related policies to move from coping to a resilience approach.

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  • 22-October-2021

    English

    Publications in the series on Pollutant Release and Transfer Registers

    Countries are taking action against toxic chemicals emitted into air, water and land by industry. How can countries track progress made towards this target? The new OECD report looks at Pollutant Release and Transfer Registers data as a means to track toxic releases to monitor chemical pollution in order to meet the United Nations Sustainable Development Goal Target 12.4.

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  • 22-October-2021

    English

    Blogs and articles related to environment

    Read what OECD bloggers have to say about topics as varied as air pollution, biodiversity, climate, environmental policies, gender, green finance, green growth, investment, ocean, waste, water and more. Read our latest blog: Building resilience to natural disaster risk in agriculture.

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  • 20-October-2021

    English

    Preventing single-use plastic waste - Implications of different policy approaches

    Single-use plastics constitute approximately half of global plastic waste generation. Their use in consumer goods and packaging has been the focus of recent waste prevention policy due to the importance of the volumes of waste generated and the frequency with which these materials are littered. To address several externalities that emerge across the life-cycle of single-use plastics, multiple policies can be combined to constitute an effective policy mix. In several markets, market-based policy instruments and policy bans have helped to curb waste generation and littering of single-use plastics. However, the effectiveness of these interventions depends to an important extent on whether environmentally preferable substitute materials or products are available, and on whether the measures are effectively enforced. Effective policy intervention requires a policy mix that covers single-use plastics, as well as their substitutes, and that includes an emphasis on monitoring and enforcement, in order to help minimise burden-shifting of environmental impacts.
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