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Reports


  • 3-February-2021

    English

    The Digital Transformation of SMEs

    Despite potentially tremendous benefits, small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) lag in the digital transformation. Emerging technologies, as diverse as they are, offer a range of applications for them to improve performance and overcome the size-related limitations they face in doing business. However, SMEs must be better prepared, and stakes are high. SMEs make the most of the industrial fabric in many countries and regions, they create jobs (most jobs sometimes) and are the cement of inclusive and sustainable societies. The SME digital gap has increased inequalities among people, places and firms, and there are concerns that the benefits of the digital transformation could accrue to early adopters, further broadening these inequalities. Enabling SME digitalisation has become a top policy priority in OECD countries and beyond. The report looks at recent trends in SME digital uptake, including in the context of the COVID-19 crisis. It focuses on issues related to digital security, online platforms, blockchain ecosystems, and artificial intelligence. The report identifies opportunities, risks of not going digital, and barriers to adoption. It looks to concrete policy action taken worldwide to speed the SME transformation and raises a series of considerations to advance the SME digital policy agenda.
  • 3-February-2021

    English

    State-owned enterprises in the shipbuilding sector

    This paper uses firm-level data analysis to assess the extent, and the economic and policy implications of state-owned enterprises (hereafter SOEs) in the shipbuilding sector. Even though the available data appears to be limited in certain respects, one of the paper’s key findings demonstrates that SOEs occupy a significant share in global ship completions, but are likely to operate with lower profitability rates and to be more highly leveraged than private enterprises. This report also presents a number of guiding principles to assess SOEs’ behaviour and their potential impact on the shipbuilding market, such as good corporate governance frameworks and the principle of competitive neutrality. To provide a concrete comparative analysis of SOEs and their private counterparts, the paper examines a case-study comparing the Chinese central state-owned enterprise CSIC and its private counterpart Yangzijiang Shipbuilding.
  • 21-January-2021

    English

    OECD/ICN Report on International Co-operation in Competition Enforcement 2021

    This report presents the key findings from a survey on international enforcement co-operation jointly carried out by the OECD and the International Competition Network.

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  • 18-January-2021

    English

    Scale, market power and competition in a digital world - Is bigger better?

    This report assesses the impact of digitalisation on competition by examining the evolution of mark-ups and multifactor productivity (MFP) across firms of different sizes. It finds that size is positively related to mark-ups and that this relationship has strengthened over time. This trend has been accompanied by an increase in the relative productivity advantage of larger firms and both changes are more pronounced in digital-intensive sectors, suggesting that digitalisation may be an underlying driver. Policy makers may need to consider appropriate responses if digital technologies affect larger and smaller firms in a heterogeneous manner.
  • 18-January-2021

    English

    The effects of online disclosure about personalised pricing on consumers - Results from a lab experiment in Ireland and Chile

    Online personalised pricing is a form of price discrimination that involves charging different prices to different consumers, often based on a consumer’s personal data. Policymakers are currently discussing ways to protect consumers from potential adverse effects of personalised pricing. One option involves displaying disclosures on the websites of retailers that use personalised pricing, in order for consumers to make informed purchase decisions. This paper summarizes findings from a laboratory experiment on the effects that online disclosures about personalised pricing have on consumers. Results from the experiment suggest that online disclosures have only limited effects on consumers’ ability to identify and comprehend online personalised pricing, and cannot confirm a significant effect on participants’ purchasing behaviour. Results from a questionnaire distributed to participants reveal that on average personalised pricing is considered an unfair practice that should be prohibited.
  • 22-December-2020

    English

    Integrating Responsible Business Conduct in Public Procurement

    Society has become increasingly aware of environmental and human rights-related risks in global supply chains in recent years. Public procurement can make a positive contribution to economic, environmental and social progress. If not used strategically, though, people and the planet may face more negative impacts. Meanwhile, governments and businesses face calls to take greater responsibility for their purchasing decisions. Risk-based supply chain due diligence can help public buyers to boost responsible business behaviour through public procurement. This report takes stock of current practices integrating responsible business conduct (RBC) in public procurement and identifies possible avenues to increase the impact of public procurement strategies to promote responsible business conduct objectives. Based on a survey with both OECD Members and Adherents to OECD instruments on public procurement and RBC, it covers a wide geographical range and features data focused on responsible business conduct aspects in public procurement. The report encourages policy makers and practitioners in public procurement and RBC to collaborate with all relevant stakeholders, drawing on good practices from across policy areas.
  • 15-December-2020

    English

    OECD bundled communication price baskets

    Providing internationally comparable measures on prices of communication services has been a core task of the OECD through its Working Party on Communication Infrastructures and Services Policy (WPCISP) for decades. Currently, the majority of broadband services in OECD countries are based on bundled offers. This report develops OECD price baskets for bundled communication services to complement existing fixed and mobile price baskets. The baskets for bundled communication services range from dual play to quadruple play baskets, which include different combinations of fixed broadband, fixed voice, mobile voice and data, and pay-TV services. The report proposes 30 bundled baskets, accounting for different usage patterns and service elements. With increased convergence and the prevalence of communication bundles in the majority of OECD countries, this methodology sets a reference point for discussions on price baskets for bundled communication services in international fora.
  • 10-November-2020

    English

    OECD Competition Assessment Reviews: Iceland

    This report reviews two sectors of the Icelandic economy - construction and tourism - and makes 438 recommendations to remove barriers to competition and administrative burdens.

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  • 10-novembre-2020

    Français

    Changer les lois et éliminer les obstacles à l’autonomisation économique des femmes : Égypte, Jordanie, Maroc et Tunisie

    À l’heure où de nombreux pays de la région MENA cherchent à accélérer leur croissance économique et à construire des sociétés plus stables et plus ouvertes, ce rapport soutient qu’une plus grande autonomisation économique des femmes est l’une des clés pour atteindre ce double objectif. Il affirme qu’en dépit des difficultés rencontrées par certains pays pour garantir aux femmes un accès égal aux opportunités économiques, des progrès sont en cours et peuvent être renforcés par des actions politiques ciblées, inclusives et coordonnées. S’appuyant sur les conclusions d’un premier rapport de suivi publié en 2017, le présent rapport analyse les réformes législatives, politiques et institutionnelles récentes en faveur de l’autonomisation économique des femmes en Égypte, en Jordanie, au Maroc et en Tunisie et cherche à identifier les facteurs de réussite qui ont contribué à ancrer ces réformes. Il fournit par ailleurs des exemples concrets et des outils pratiques à l’intention des décideurs politiques pour les aider à transformer les politiques publiques en actions efficaces pour l’autonomisation économique des femmes.
  • 5-November-2020

    English

    El Salvador - Competition Law and Policy

    This page contains information on the work of the OECD and El Salvador in the area of Competition Law and Policy.

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