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Reports


  • 27-April-2022

    English

    Revenue Statistics in Latin America and the Caribbean 2022

    This report compiles comparable tax revenue statistics over the period 1990-2020 for 27 Latin American and Caribbean economies. Based on the OECD Revenue Statistics database, it applies the OECD methodology to countries in Latin America and the Caribbean to enable comparison of tax levels and tax structures on a consistent basis, both among the economies of the region and with other economies. This publication is jointly undertaken by the OECD Centre for Tax Policy and Administration, the OECD Development Centre, the Inter-American Center of Tax Administrations (CIAT), the Economic Commission for Latin America and the Caribbean (ECLAC) and the Inter-American Development Bank (IDB).
  • 22-March-2022

    English

    The Strategic and Responsible Use of Artificial Intelligence in the Public Sector of Latin America and the Caribbean

    Governments can use artificial intelligence (AI) to design better policies and make better and more targeted decisions, enhance communication and engagement with citizens, and improve the speed and quality of public services. The Latin America and the Caribbean (LAC) region is seeking to leverage the immense potential of AI to promote the digital transformation of the public sector. The OECD, in collaboration with CAF, Development Bank of Latin America, prepared this report to help national governments in the LAC region understand the current regional baseline of activities and capacities for AI in the public sector; to identify specific approaches and actions they can take to enhance their ability to use this emerging technology for efficient, effective and responsive governments; and to collaborate across borders in pursuit of a regional vision for AI in the public sector. This report incorporates a stocktaking of each country’s strategies and commitments around AI in the public sector, including their alignment with the OECD AI Principles. It also includes an analysis of efforts to build key governance capacities and put in place critical enablers for AI in the public sector. It concludes with a series of recommendations for governments in the LAC region.
  • 2-March-2022

    English

    Corporate Governance in Latin America

    Several regional initiatives provide a forum for the exchange of experiences between senior policy makers, regulators and market participants to promote good corporate governance practices in the Latin American region.

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  • 18-February-2022

    English

    Engaging Employers in Vocational Education and Training in Brazil - Learning from International Practices

    One of a series of studies on vocational education and training (VET), this report focuses on how international evidence can inform reforms of the VET system in Brazil. The reforms aim to considerably expand provision of initial VET, tripling enrolment between 2014-2024. Today, few upper-secondary students participate in VET in Brazil as compared to many OECD countries. The reform is a welcome initiative, provided that the expansion is coupled with investments in quality. Expansion of VET is likely to diversify the students attending VET programmes and increase the demand for VET teachers, and schools will need the support to make this work while ensuring that the programmes they offer are relevant for the labour market. By international standards, employers in Brazil provide limited input into VET policy and very few VET students have an opportunity of training with employers, and the reforms could be an opportunity to strengthen their involvement. Moreover, the reform could reinforce assessment strategies, as a lack of reliable assessment may decrease the value of VET qualifications. To support reform efforts in Brazil, this report brings in international evidence and discusses how other countries are addressing various related challenges encountered in their VET systems.
  • 2-February-2022

    English

    Regulatory Governance in the Mining Sector in Brazil

    Mining plays a crucial role in Brazil’s economy. Nonetheless, the efforts and resources devoted to regulatory quality in the sector, including the enforcement of rules, have not always been commensurate. This report identifies the gaps, barriers, implementation flaws and inefficiencies in the regulatory framework of the mining sector in Brazil. It takes stock of the recent reforms in the mining sector in Brazil, identifies areas that pose the greatest challenges for effective regulation in mining. It also describes the reforms that created the National Mining Agency of Brazil, its governance arrangements and its current regulatory practices. These are assessed against OECD principles in regulatory policy and mining regulation, as well as against country experiences from Australia, Chile, and Mexico. Finally, recommendations are provided to support further reform efforts.
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  • 1-February-2022

    English

    Implementing Gas Market Reform in Brazil - Insights from European experience

    The Novo Mercado de Gás (New Gas Market) reform programme is set to enhance the physical flexibility of the gas system, enable gas to be delivered more quickly, foster competition and facilitate the integration of a higher share of intermittent renewables into the Brazilian energy system. In the longer term, an open, competitive gas market can more easily adapt to a multi-gas system that includes and deploys low-carbon gases. At the request of the Brazilian government, the International Energy Agency (IEA) has been providing technical advice based on international experience to inform and shape the country’s gas market reform programme from day one. This current white paper follows the report 'Towards a competitive natural gas market in Brazil: A review of the opening of the natural gas transmission system in Brazil', published in September 2018. It aims to share best practices from Europe in terms of gas market design and reforms, including commercial and practical implications. This white paper includes a section on the role of natural gas and low-carbon gases in Brazilian clean energy transition.
  • 13-January-2022

    English

    Fostering Water Resilience in Brazil - Turning Strategy into Action

    Brazil made significant progress in managing water resources since the adoption of the National Water Law in 1997 and the creation of the National Water and Sanitation Agency (ANA) in 2000. Nevertheless, water security challenges persist and will be aggravated by megatrends such as climate change, population growth, urbanisation, and the economic, social and environmental consequences of the COVID-19 pandemic. The report calls for a modern approach to water security, balancing supply and demand management, grey and green infrastructure, and risk management and resilience while embracing a holistic view that connects water to other strategic areas such as environment, land use and territorial development. The report builds on a decade of policy dialogue between the OECD and the National Water and Sanitation Agency (ANA) of Brazil. It provides an action plan to support the country to: (1) shift from a risk-based approach to a resilience approach to understand vulnerabilities and minimise the duration and magnitude of failures; (2) make river basin organisations deliver and use economic instruments to tackle water risks; and (3) accompany infrastructure development with regulatory oversight and monitoring.
  • 14-December-2021

    English

    Primary Health Care in Brazil

    Primary health care in Brazil is well-organised, the result of sustained commitment to providing high quality primary health care for the whole population. Brazil has implemented a set of reforms over the past decades to improve the distribution of doctors, develop new forms of service organisation, introduce new financing models, and implement a range of quality improvement initiatives. This review uses internationally recognised indicators and policy frameworks to examine the performance of primary health care in Brazil. While the review points to notable successes, Brazil continues to face challenges as its population ages, risk factors such as obesity are on the rise, and emerging pandemic threats require resilience and adaptability. The report points to key actions that Brazil should consider in the coming years to strengthen performance of primary health care, especially screening and prevention for major non-communicable diseases, improve quality of primary health care provision, address workforce shortages and pursue a digital transformation. A companion publication with a health system review of Brazil examines the main challenges and approaches needed to improve the performance of the Brazilian health system.
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  • 14-December-2021

    English

    OECD Reviews of Health Systems: Brazil 2021

    In the 30 years since the inception of the Unified Health System (Sistema Único de Saúde, or SUS), Brazil has reduced health inequalities, and improved coverage and access to health care. However, mobilising sufficient financing for the universal health coverage mandate of SUS has been a constant challenge, not helped by persistent inefficiencies in the use of resources in the Brazilian health system. Demographic and epidemiological changes, rising expectations from society, and the emerging needs of a post-COVID‑19 recovery period mean that continued adjustments and reforms are needed to ensure the sustainability of the health system. This review uses internationally recognised indicators and policy frameworks to examine the performance of Brazilian health system. The report points to key actions that Brazil should consider prioritising in the coming years to strengthen health system performance, especially improving efficiency and sustainability of financing, upgrading its health data infrastructure to leverage a digital transformation, and addressing major population risk factors such as overweight and harmful alcohol consumption. A companion publication with a review of primary health care in Brazil further examines the key role of primary health care to improve the performance of the Brazilian health system.
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  • 8-December-2021

    English

    Strengthening Public Integrity in Brazil - Mainstreaming Integrity Policies in the Federal Executive Branch

    Mainstreaming integrity policies throughout a public administration is a common challenge in many countries. Brazil’s Office of the Comptroller General (CGU) has implemented a series of measures to do so, including establishing the Public Integrity System of the Federal Executive Branch (SIPEF). This report analyses these recent developments and provides recommendations on how to better promote a culture of integrity through the Integrity Management Units with targeted support by the CGU. The report also highlights opportunities to improve the clarity and coherence of policies to promote public integrity and public ethics, manage conflicts of interest, and foster integrity risk management by streamlining these areas under the umbrella of public integrity.
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