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Reports


  • 28-June-2022

    English

    The effect of declining unemployment benefits on transitions to employment - Evidence from Belgium

    This paper provides new evidence on the effect of the 2012 reform on flows from UB to employment. The reform increased the steepness of the time profile of unemployment benefits by raising the initial benefit, lowering its long-term level and increasing the number of steps in-between. The analysis finds no indication that the 2012 reform of the Belgian UB system led to an increase in flows towards employment or inactivity either in the aggregate or when comparing groups of workers whose benefits were affected to different extents. While the results of this paper and recent literature provide little ground in favour of a further accentuation of the steepness of the time profile of UB in Belgium, the system could likely benefit from a simplification of the rules that would enhance its readability for workers and facilitate its administration and evaluation.
  • 30-May-2022

    English

    Belgium 2022 Energy Policy Review

    The International Energy Agency (IEA) regularly conducts in-depth peer reviews of the energy policies of its member countries. This process supports energy policy development and encourages the exchange of international best practices and experiences to help drive secure, affordable and clean energy transitions.Belgium’s energy and climate policies push for energy transition through expanding renewable electricity generation and electrifying energy demand, especially for transport. Policies focus on maintaining affordable access to energy with the double aim of protecting vulnerable consumers and ensuring industrial competitiveness. Belgium has made notable progress on deploying offshore wind and increasing the share of electric vehicles. However, fossil fuels still dominate the country’s energy mix, a dependence that is expected to increase. All sectors have considerable work ahead of them to meet Belgium’s targets for increasing the share of renewables, lowering energy demand and reducing emissions.The IEA provides a range of energy policy recommendations in this report to help Belgium smoothly manage the transition to an efficient and flexible carbon-neutral energy system.
  • 16-May-2022

    English

    OECD Skills Strategy Implementation Guidance for Flanders, Belgium - The Faces of Learners in Flanders

    This OECD Skills Strategy Implementation Guidance report presents a model for the segmentation of the adult learning population in Flanders, which resulted in the identification of nine representative learner profiles. These profiles provide unique insights into the diversity of factors that affect decisions to participate in learning, including motivation, obstacles to learning, socio-demographic characteristics, and labour market characteristics. These profiles will assist Flanders’ reflections on how to target and tailor existing and new lifelong learning policies to the needs of learners.
  • 15-March-2022

    English

    Quality and Equity of Schooling in the German-speaking Community of Belgium

    The German-speaking Community of Belgium is in the process of developing an overall vision for its education system (the 'Gesamtvision Bildung') to guide reforms across the education sector for greater quality and equity. To support this process, the OECD review offers an independent analysis of the German-speaking Community’s school system and assesses the system’s strengths and challenges from an international perspective. It provides a description of the system’s policies in international comparison and proposes options for future reforms, covering pre-primary to upper secondary education. The analysis addresses the funding and governance of school education, policies to support equity and inclusion, the evaluation system, school leadership and the development of the teaching profession. The report aims to highlight opportunities for the German-speaking Community to build on the strengths of its school system, enhance the effectiveness of its resource use and ensure that the system delivers the best outcomes for all students.
  • 9-March-2022

    English

    Engaging citizens in cohesion policy - DG REGIO and OECD pilot project final report

    Around one-third of the European Union’s budget is dedicated to cohesion policy, which promotes and supports the overall harmonious development of its Member States and regions. The success of this investment relies on effective partnerships among governments, stakeholders, and citizens. Citizens have a key role to play in shaping decisions on public investment, as well as in making public authorities more transparent and accountable. From July 2020-December 2021, the European Commission and the OECD partnered to explore how five authorities across Europe could place citizens at the centre of their investment decisions. This report summarises lessons learned throughout this project and, particularly, the results of applying innovative citizen participation methods to cohesion policy more broadly.
  • 18-January-2022

    English

    Paying for results - Contracting out employment services through outcome-based payment schemes in OECD countries

    OECD countries deliver publicly-funded employment services through different institutional arrangements. While in most OECD countries the majority of such services are delivered by public employment services, in two in five OECD and EU countries (or regions) they are partly or fully contracted out to external providers, including for-profit and not-for-profit entities. Contracting out employment services to outside providers offers many potential benefits: an increased flexibility to scale capacity in line with changes in unemployment, the possibility of offering services more cost-effectively, the option to better tailor services through the use of specialised service providers and the possibility to offer jobseekers choice of providers. However, achieving these benefits will depend on the actual design and monitoring of the contracting arrangements that are put in place. Focusing on the job brokerage, counselling and case-management employment services typically provided by public agencies, this paper reviews the experiences of OECD countries that have contracted out employment services through outcome-based payment schemes. It highlights the need to carefully consider questions related to the design and implementation of this form of contracting: fostering competition amongst potential providers, setting appropriate minimum service requirements and prices for different client groups, and ensuring the accountability of providers through monitoring and evaluations. These issues are discussed based on country examples, which are also detailed in factsheets contained in the online annex of the paper.
  • 18-janvier-2022

    Français

  • 6-December-2021

    English

    Resourcing Higher Education in the Flemish Community of Belgium

    The report on Resourcing Higher Education in the Flemish Community of Belgium is the first in a series of publications produced by the OECD's Resourcing Higher Education Project. This project aims to develop a shared knowledge base for OECD member and partner countries on effective policies for higher education resourcing through system-specific and comparative policy analysis. The review of resourcing in the Flemish Community of Belgium has a strong focus on the funding of operating costs, teaching and research in Flemish higher education institutions. It also analyses financial support for students, system-level frameworks governing human resources policy in higher education and key trends in higher education that will impact future higher education resourcing policy. Alongside analysis and comparison of Flemish resourcing policy approaches, it provides recommendations to support future refinement of policies.
  • 22-November-2021

    English

    Promoting Education Decision Makers' Use of Evidence in Flanders

    The introduction of standardised tests in Flemish schools aims to generate regular, reliable data for educators and policy makers. At an early stage of development, this report uses a research-based framework to engage stakeholders in thinking about the opportunities standardised tests could bring for their work. It builds on feedback from key stakeholders regarding their perceptions, hopes and concerns about the introduction of standardised tests. Feedback was gathered during a series of structured discussions and a stakeholder reflection seminar. The report identifies ways to strengthen the opportunity, capability and motivation of decision makers at all levels of the education system to use evidence effectively for their respective practice – including teaching and quality assurance. The report identifies lessons learnt to support the further development of standardised tests. The publication is part of OECD work on strategic education governance, which supports countries in identifying the best ways to achieve national objectives in a context of multi‑level governance structures and complex environments. The work identifies and promotes effective governance processes in the domains of accountability, capacity, knowledge governance, stakeholder involvement, strategic thinking and adopting a whole‑of‑system perspective. This publication will be of interest to policy makers, education leaders, the education research community and all those interested in education governance.
  • 18-October-2021

    English

    Schooling During a Pandemic - The Experience and Outcomes of Schoolchildren During the First Round of COVID-19 Lockdowns

    This report offers an initial overview of the available information regarding the circumstances, nature and outcomes of the education of schoolchildren during the first wave of COVID-19 lockdowns of March-April 2020. Its purpose is primarily descriptive: it presents information from high quality quantitative studies on the experience of learning during this period in order to ground the examination and discussion of these issues in empirical examples. Information is presented on three interrelated topics: the nature of the educational experience during the period of lockdowns and school closures; the home environment in which education took place for the vast majority of schoolchildren; the effects on the mental health and learning outcomes for children during this period. The data come primarily from 5 countries (France, Germany, Ireland, the United Kingdom and the United States) with additional information on some aspects for 6 additional countries (Australia, Belgium (Flanders), Canada, Finland, Italy and the Netherlands). This report will be of interest to policy makers, academics, education stakeholders and anyone interested in a first international empirical analysis of the effects of the pandemic on the lives and education of schoolchildren.
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