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  • 18-December-2020

    English

    Towards Water Security in Belarus - A Synthesis Report

    This report presents the results of collaboration on improving water security in Belarus, between the beneficiary country, the OECD and its partners implementing the EU-funded European Union Water Initiative Plus project. It provides an overview of the composition and distribution of the country’s water resources, including the particular challenges facing different regions (oblasts), and lays out the policy responses that Belarus has taken and planned to progress its overarching policy objective of ensuring water security within the framework of the future national Water Strategy in the Context of Climate Change for the Period until 2030. The report also provides an assessment of potential opportunities to boost water security in Belarus by supporting the country’s ongoing water policy reform agenda.
  • 18-December-2020

    English

    Addressing the COVID-19 and climate crises - Potential economic recovery pathways and their implications for climate change mitigation, NDCs and broader socio-economic goals

    This paper provides decision-makers with a framework for prioritising different economic, social and environmental goals and analysing the options available to achieve them. To this end, it develops three stylised COVID-19 recovery pathways ('Rebound', 'Decoupling' and 'Wider well-being') that differ in the extent to which they encompass greenhouse gas (GHG) emission reductions and the integration of mitigation and wider well-being outcomes or, broadly equivalently, SDGs. A number of real-world examples of COVID-19 recovery measures in the surface transport and residential sectors were identified, and the paper maps these measures onto these three stylised pathways. The paper finds a wide divergence in the environmental and social impacts of COVID-19 recovery measures developed to date, with several countries putting in place measures that correspond to all three pathways. The nature and pace of economic recovery in different countries and in aggregate will have important implications for existing, updated and new Nationally Determined Contributions (NDCs) under the Paris Agreement, and the paper also highlights the possible impact of the COVID-19 recovery measures being put in place on NDCs– including on the ambition of both current and future NDCs. The paper concludes that it will be important for governments to improve their understanding of the impact of their recovery measures across multiple policy dimensions (economic, social, environmental) as well as across different time periods (short and long-term) and spatial scales.
  • 11-December-2020

    English

    Reporting national GHG inventories through Common Reporting Tables (CRTs) - An assessment of CRT reporting options through worked examples

    The Modalities, Procedures and Guidelines (MPGs) included in Decision 18/CMA.1 adopted at COP24 in 2018 require all Parties to the Paris Agreement to report national greenhouse gas (GHG) inventories using 'common reporting tables' (CRTs). The same decision requests the Subsidiary Body for Scientific and Technological Advice (SBSTA) is to develop CRTs for consideration and adoption by COP26. This paper focuses on key issues related to the potential structure of the CRTs and approaches to filling them in. The paper assesses different CRT reporting scenarios through worked examples. Overall, the paper finds that all the tables contained in the set of Common Reporting Formats (CRFs) currently in use by Annex I Parties provide a valuable starting point for the development of CRTs. A number of improvements and adjustments, however, need to be applied to current CRFs to better reflect reporting guidance outlined in the MPGs. This paper finds that it is important to ensure that the CRTs are designed in a way that allows for a reporting that is as standardised as possible. This may include allowing for the use of standardised reporting elements (e.g. notation keys) and amending the tables according to a new, commonly agreed structure to allow for the reporting of new reporting elements. Using a common format while also facilitating standardised reporting can positively affect a number of processes, including the technical expert review and automated processing of information, thereby promoting transparency, comparability and consistency of GHG-inventory reporting.
  • 10-December-2020

    English

    How Urban Delivery Vehicles can Boost Electric Mobility

    This report presents policies and private sector initiatives for the electrification of urban delivery vehicles. Electric vehicles have low operational costs and the high mileage of delivery vehicles maximises net savings from converting a fleet. Insights on the total cost of ownership and the environmental footprint of electric fleets highlight broader benefits of electrification programmes for commercial vehicles.
  • 7-December-2020

    English

    Measures needed to curb particulate matter emitted by wear of car parts and road surfaces

    Wear and tear from brakes, tyres and road surfaces will soon overtake car exhaust fumes as the leading source of fine particles released into the air by road traffic, according to a new OECD report, and heavy electric vehicles with long-distance batteries could compound the problem even as they slash emissions from engine exhaust.

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  • 7-December-2020

    English

    Non-exhaust Particulate Emissions from Road Transport - An Ignored Environmental Policy Challenge

    Non-exhaust emissions of particulate matter constitute a little-known but rising share of emissions from road traffic and have significant negative impacts on public health. This report synthesizes the current state of knowledge about the nature, causes, and consequences of non-exhaust particulate emissions. It also projects how particulate matter emissions from non-exhaust sources may evolve in future years and reflects on policy instrument mixes that can address this largely ignored environmental issue.
  • 3-December-2020

    English

    Consumption Tax Trends 2020 - VAT/GST and Excise Rates, Trends and Policy Issues

    Consumption Tax Trends provides information on Value Added Taxes/Goods and Services Taxes (VAT/GST) and excise duty rates in OECD member countries. It also contains information about international aspects of VAT/GST developments and the efficiency of this tax. It describes a range of other consumption taxation provisions on tobacco, alcoholic beverages, motor vehicles and aviation fuels.
  • 2-December-2020

    English

    Blog: Is the Covid-19 crisis spurring a transition to net-zero emissions in the oil and gas sector?

    An increasing number of international oil and gas companies have set out seemingly ambitious goals to transition to “net-zero” carbon emissions by 2050. What is behind these new announcements? What do the commitments mean for achieving the Paris Agreement goals, and can they help to convince governments to be bolder and to really deliver on their plans for a “green recovery” after COVID-19?

  • 25-November-2020

    English

    Regional seminar on risk-based approaches to environmental compliance assurance

    This seminar facilitated the sharing of experiences and good practices from OECD and the Eastern Partnership economies in adopting risk-based approaches to environmental compliance assurance, exploring commonly encountered challenges and methods to support voluntary compliance.

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