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Policy Briefs


  • 4-June-2007

    English, , 169kb

    Policy Brief: Prosecuting Cartels without Direct Evidence of Agreement

    Cartels are agreements among competitors fixing prices, allocating markets or rigging tenders (bids). They are the most harmful of all types of competition law violations and should be sanctioned severely. Cartel cases are unique. The most important part of a cartel case is simply proving that such an agreement existed. But getting direct evidence of a cartel agreement can be difficult. Cartel operators work in secret and often do not

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  • 16-January-2007

    English, Excel, 142kb

    Policy Brief: Competition and Barriers to Entry

    Before a firm can compete in a market, it has to be able to enter it. Many markets have at least some impediments that make it more difficult for a firm to enter a market. A debate over how to define the term “barriers to entry” began decades ago, however, and it has yet to be won. Some scholars have argued, for example, that an obstacle is not an entry barrier if incumbent firms faced it when they entered the market. Others contend

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