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These Best Practices aim to identify safeguards that member countries should consider applying when they authorise competition authorities to exchange confidential information in cartel investigations.
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Individual sanctions can be an important tool in the fight against cartels, as corporate fines are almost never sufficiently high to be an optimal deterrent. A country’s decision whether to provide for criminal sanctions depends on several factors, such as the cultural and legal environment and the competition authority’s resources. If a country provides for criminal sanctions, relatively short prison sentences appear to be the most
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Universal service obligations are common in many of the infrastructure sectors. The obligations are often cited as a justification for limiting entry of new providers because the new providers would cherry-pick the high profit customers who provide the basis for subsidisation of another group of customers. When obligations are beneficial, there are a number of policy traps that can be encountered. Obligations are often not
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The introduction of greater competition in regulated sectors has required establishing new regulators or seriously rethinking what existing regulators were doing, bringing to the fore important questions concerning the proper relationship between sector specific regulators and economy-wide competition agencies. On the one hand, competition agencies have a comparative advantage over regulators when it comes to ensuring that