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Publications


  • 12-June-2020

    English

    Reporting progress towards Nationally Determined Contributions - Exploring possible common tabular formats for the structured summary

    Common Tabular Formats (CTFs) for the reporting of information necessary to track progress towards Nationally Determined Contributions (NDCs) under Article 4 of the Paris Agreement, including on the use of cooperative approaches, are to be adopted by COP26. This paper explores concrete examples and worked examples for the structured summary of information to track progress, including on information on cooperative approaches. This paper finds that the structured summary would be more likely to meet the principles established in the Paris Agreement and related decisions, including the Modalities, Procedures and Guidelines (MPGs), if it was separated into CTFs for reporting on tracking progress indicators and a CTF for reporting on the use of cooperative approaches.
  • 12-June-2020

    English

    The Consequences of a more resource efficient and circular economy for international trade patterns - A modelling assessment

    This report investigates the effects of a resource efficiency and circular economy (RE-CE) transition on international trade flows, using the OECD’s ENV-Linkages model. A global RE-CE policy package will cause secondary materials to become cheaper, while primary materials become more expensive to produce. By 2040, primary non-ferrous metals are projected to decline by 35-50%, primary iron & steel by 15% and primary non-metallic minerals by around 10%. Regional shifts in production and trade-related effects (shifts in the regional sourcing of the primary materials by the materials processing sectors) account for roughly one-third of the total reduction in materials use. The other two thirds of materials use reduction come from scale effects (reduced economic activity) and efficiency effects (reduced materials use per unit of output of the processed commodities).
  • 12-June-2020

    English

    Aligning short-term climate action with long-term climate goals - Opportunities and options for enhancing alignment between NDCs and long-term strategies

    The Paris Agreement and its accompanying decision call for Parties to strive to formulate mid-century communicate long-term low-greenhouse gas emission development strategies (LT-LEDS) by 2020. Moreover, the Paris decision requests Parties to communicate a new or updated Nationally Determined Contribution (NDC) by 2020. This paper finds that there is potential for these long-term strategies to guide short- and mid-term action and feed into future NDC submissions. This paper highlights that long-term strategies can substantially shape countries’ short- and mid-term priorities, policies and investment pipelines, leading to significant cost reductions in the long-term. Linking NDCs to long-term mitigation strategies will be key in ensuring efficient use of resources, particularly crucial for responding to climate change amidst and following the COVID-19 crisis.
  • 11-June-2020

    English

    How Islamic finance contributes to achieving the Sustainable Development Goals

    This report identifies the opportunities that Islamic finance presents for donors. To achieve these, Arab and OECD Development Assistance Committee donors need to mobilise innovative forms of financing and deliver the call to deepen the transformation of development finance systems. DAC members could do so by broadening and deepening exposure to alternative forms of financing, such as Islamic finance. Islamic finance represents USD 2.5 trillion – a share of which could be mobilised for development – and its tenets resonate across the member countries of the Organisation for Islamic Cooperation and beyond. Arab donors could harness Islamic finance, as a means to strengthen partnerships with DAC members, whilst increasing the effectiveness of existing aid flows in countries and contexts where they have considerable access. Doing so could create a more equitable and stable development finance order capable of delivering the SDGs and achieve greater impact in partner countries. Both communities would then be able to chart a path for all development actors, notably the private sector, development finance institutions and other bilateral donors. This report provides a set of action points for Arab and DAC donors, highlighting the benefits of engaging in and co-operating through Islamic finance.
  • 11-June-2020

    English

    Main Economic Indicators - Volume 2020 Issue 6

    The monthly Main Economic Indicators (MEI) presents comparative statistics that provide an overview of recent international economic developments for OECD countries, the euro zone and a number of non-member economies. This indispensable and unique source of key short-term statistics is a vehicle for analysis for corporate planners, economists, academics, researchers and students. Using the most up-to-date, user-friendly tabular presentation, the indicators cover national accounts, business surveys and consumer opinions, leading indicators, retail sales, production, construction, prices, employment, unemployment, wages, finance, international trade and balance of payments.
  • 10-June-2020

    English

    Innovative Citizen Participation and New Democratic Institutions - Catching the Deliberative Wave

    Public authorities from all levels of government increasingly turn to Citizens' Assemblies, Juries, Panels and other representative deliberative processes to tackle complex policy problems ranging from climate change to infrastructure investment decisions. They convene groups of people representing a wide cross-section of society for at least one full day – and often much longer – to learn, deliberate, and develop collective recommendations that consider the complexities and compromises required for solving multifaceted public issues. This 'deliberative wave' has been building since the 1980s, gaining momentum since around 2010. This report has gathered close to 300 representative deliberative practices to explore trends in such processes, identify different models, and analyse the trade-offs among different design choices as well as the benefits and limits of public deliberation. It includes Good Practice Principles for Deliberative Processes for Public Decision Making, based on comparative empirical evidence gathered by the OECD and in collaboration with leading practitioners from government, civil society, and academics. Finally, the report explores the reasons and routes for embedding deliberative activities into public institutions to give citizens a more permanent and meaningful role in shaping the policies affecting their lives.
  • 10-June-2020

    English

    Digital transformation and the futures of civic space to 2030

    Digital transformation is rapidly altering civic space, challenging the ways in which members of the OECD Development Assistance Committee (DAC) and other providers of development co-operation strive to promote an enabling environment for civil society to contribute to sustainable development. This paper aims to support DAC members and other providers of development co-operation to integrate the implications of a range of plausible futures of civic space into positive policy action today. To this end, it provides an overview of the variables (i.e. current trends, drivers of change and uncertainties) that may determine the trajectory of civic space in the context of digital transformation; identifies four plausible futures that emerge from four different logical interactions of these variables - that could materialise over a ten-year horizon and be fully realised by 2030; and draws policy implications to support DAC members and other providers in designing development cooperation policies that best leverage the opportunities that digital transformation offers while mitigating its risks.
  • 10-June-2020

    English

    Why parenting matters for children in the 21st century - An evidence-based framework for understanding parenting and its impact on child development

    This paper provides a structured overview of the existing parenting literature with the aim of developing an evidence-based and culture-sensitive framework of parenting and its influence on child development. The paper outlines how changes in the 21st century have altered family life and summarises evidence from 29 meta-studies and 81 quantitative studies for the developmental impact of different parenting styles and dimensions. Overall, results suggest that warm parenting that provides children with age-appropriate autonomy and structure is key for a healthy and prosperous development of children and adolescents across various domains. The parenting approach adopted by parents but also its effect varies and the paper points to various contextual (e.g. culture, socio-economic factors, support within the community and family) and individual (e.g. gender, personality and health condition of children and parents) factors explaining these variations. The paper discusses how a systematic consideration of such factors not only sharpens the scientific understanding of parenting and its impact but also helps improving family policies and support.
  • 8-June-2020

    English

    Drivers of farm performance - Empirical country case studies

    This report contains an empirical analysis of the productivity and sustainability performance of different types of farms in thirteen countries. Farm productivity performance is measured through estimates of average productivity levels and through annual rates of technical change. Evidence on the environmental sustainability of farm groups is based on an index that reflects environmental pressure per hectare and the local environmental sustainability of production practices. In addition to environmental sustainability, the analysis also considers fundamental differences across farms with respect to farm structure, innovation of operations, individual characteristics as well as farm location. Productivity performance by farm classes is related to the environmental sustainability performance and to other farm characteristics in order to shed light on the factors that drive or impede farm performance. Empirically identifying the main conditions for and obstacles to performance improvement supports the development of effective and efficient policies targeting the performance of farms. This analysis contributes in particular to a better understanding of the synergies and trade-offs between productivity and environmental sustainability performance.
  • 8-June-2020

    English

    Agglomeration economies in Great Britain

    This paper estimates agglomeration economies in Great Britain. The analysis employs a definition of urban areas as functional economic units developed by the OECD in collaboration with the European Union to investigate the size and sources of productivity disparities across urban areas. It uses data from the UK Annual Survey of Hours and Earnings and the UK Labour Force Survey between 2000 and 2018 and a two-step estimation procedure that accounts for bias in the extent of agglomeration economies arising from individual sorting. The results suggest that a 10% increase in employment density of a city in Great Britain, would, on average, increase city productivity by 0.9-1 percent. The analysis also shows the estimated elasticity for employment density remains the same before and after the 2007–08 global financial crisis, not showing any clear structural break between city size and productivity relationship.
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