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  • 28-March-2019

    English

    Vocational Education and Training in Estonia

    One of a series of studies on vocational education and training, this review assesses the vocational education and training (VET) in Estonia and provides policy recommendations.Estonia does very well in terms of student achievement on PISA, and the results from the Survey of Adult Skills (PIAAC) are also excellent. Unemployment levels are low. But despite recent reforms, VET remains relatively low status compared to general education, dropout rates are too high for comfort, and apprenticeships, despite recent efforts, fail to attract many young people. Suggested approaches to improve VET in Estonia include the expansion of work-based learning within all VET programmes and measures to increase the number of apprentices. Tackling dropout should be done by a set of complementary measures, including support in basic skills for those students lagging behind. Building pathways between VET and general education options can help improve the status of VET. More and better career guidance, especially before the key grade 9 transition point, is also needed.
  • 27-March-2019

    English

    OECD Economic Surveys: Argentina 2019

    Over many decades, Argentina’s economy has been held back by weak policy settings and productivity has stagnated. Recent and additional reforms will help to raise prosperity for all Argentinians in the medium term. Strengthening competition by reducing barriers to market entry and foreign trade has particularly high payoffs. Tariff barriers have prevented a stronger integration into the world economy, which could raise consumer purchasing power, reduce the cost of firms’ inputs and lead companies in shielded sectors to become more productive. Currently, many jobs are trapped in activities with limited potential for productivity and wage growth. As job reallocation can result in temporary income losses, policies should ease the transition by enhancing training and social protection. Social policies are effective in reducing inequalities and poverty continued its declining trend during 2016 and 2017, until a severe economic crisis pushed the economy into a deep recession in 2018. This has shifted the immediate policy focus to restoring confidence and unwinding significant fiscal and external imbalances. Swift and decisive policy responses were necessary and their implementation will lay the grounds for a return of macroeconomic stability and a recovery from the recession, although significant risks remain.SPECIAL FEATURE: FOSTERING INTEGRATION INTO THE WORLD ECONOMY
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  • 27-March-2019

    English

    OECD Integrity Review of Argentina - Achieving Systemic and Sustained Change

    The OECD Integrity Review of Argentina assesses recent efforts to transform Argentina’s integrity framework from isolated initiatives into a  coherent whole-of-society integrity system. The Review presents concrete actions for developing an integrity strategy to sustain current reforms. The Review also provides insights into how to operationalise a risk management approach to corruption and upgrade the internal audit function within government. Finally, the Review assesses the government decision-making process and provides options for increasing its transparency and integrity for more accountable and equitable policies.
  • 27-March-2019

    English

    Society at a Glance 2019 - OECD Social Indicators

    This report, the ninth edition of the biennial OECD overview of social indicators, addresses the growing demand for quantitative evidence on social well-being and its trends. This year’s edition presents 25 indicators, several of which are new, and includes data for 36 OECD member countries and, where available, key partners (Brazil, China, India, Indonesia, Russia and South Africa) and other G20 countries (Argentina and Saudi Arabia).The report features a special chapter on lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender (LGBT) people: their numbers, how they fare in terms of economic outcomes and well-being, and what policies can improve LGBT inclusivity. It also includes a special section based on the 2018 OECD Risks That Matter Survey on people’s perceptions of social and economic risks and the extent to which they think governments address those risks. In addition, the report provides a guide to help readers in understanding the structure of OECD social indicators.
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  • 26-March-2019

    English

    Regulatory Policy in Argentina - Tools and Practices for Regulatory Improvement

    Argentina has embarked in a series of regulatory reforms to improve the quality of its regulatory framework. High-quality regulations can protect consumers and the environment without becoming burdensome for citizens and businesses. The OECD Review of Regulatory Policy in Argentina provides information on the policies, institutions, and tools employed by the Argentinian government to design, implement and enforce high-quality regulations. These include administrative simplification policies, ex ante and ex post evaluation of regulations, stakeholder engagement practices, and multi-level regulatory governance arrangements. The review offers policy recommendations based on best international practices to strengthen the government’s capacity to manage regulatory policy.
  • 26-March-2019

    English

    Women working in the rooftop solar sector - A look at India's transition to clean energy

    India’s rooftop solar targets represent a major opportunity for sustainable development and for women’s employment. While India has shown a strong commitment towards a clean energy transition through its renewable electricity installation target for 2022, deployment of rooftop solar technology has been slow. With the potential to create a large number of jobs in general, the rooftop solar sector also generates the types of jobs attractive to highly skilled women in particular, a largely untapped pool in India.Our analysis, based on a survey of rooftop solar companies as well as qualitative interviews with women currently employed in the sector, seeks to identify opportunities for better gender balance at work, as well as barriers to achieving it. Women currently account for only 11% of the workforce in the companies we surveyed. Participation of women is particularly low in roles involving frequent travel and a required onsite presence at project sites.We recommend that the government enhance policies to scale up the rooftop solar market by addressing the general challenges facing this sector, and introduce gender-targeted policies to enable and encourage companies to advance actions that effectively support women’s employment in this sector.
  • 26-March-2019

    English

    Building an EU Talent Pool - A New Approach to Migration Management‎ for Europe

    How can the European Union become more attractive for talented professionals looking for job opportunities worldwide? Can EU-level action support employers, private and public stakeholders in each Member State to better leverage international recruitment into the Single Market? This report presents a new overview of the obstacles that continue to hamper the attraction and recruitment of skills from outside Europe, and discusses the role of both public and private initiatives to help overcome these barriers. It provides a comparative analysis of the Expression of Interest (EoI) system of migration management as implemented in Australia, Canada and New Zealand, and assesses its potential to address the needs of the European labour migration system. The report presents several options and variants for adapting the EoI, step by step and EU-wide, and examines their feasibility, constraints and advantages.
  • 26-March-2019

    English

    China Power System Transformation - Assessing the benefit of optimised operations and advanced flexibility options

    China Power System Transformation has a two-fold objective. First, it provides a summary of the state of play of power system transformation (PST) in the People’s Republic of China ('China') as well as a comprehensive discussion of PST internationally. This includes a comprehensive review of all possible sources of power system flexibility (power plants, grid infrastructure, storage, and demand-side response) and a detailed discussion of market, policy, and regulatory frameworks to effectively mobilise power system flexibility. Second, it presents findings from a detailed power sector modelling exercise for China in 2035, building on the 2018 World Energy Outlook New Policies and Sustainable Development Scenarios. The modelling identifies the establishment of spot markets and trade between provinces as two of the main elements to improve system operation efficiency in China. In order to integrate very high shares of variable renewables consistent with the WEO SDS, activating the demand side – especially electric vehicles – and targeted use of electricity storage are found to be crucial for an accelerated transformation of the Chinese power system.
  • 25-March-2019

    English

    Vocational Education and Training in Sweden

    One of a series of studies on vocational education and training, this review focuses on the vocational education and training (VET) in Sweden and concludes with policy recommendations.Over recent years, Sweden has launched a series of reforms to enhance involvement of social partners in VET, to increase provision of work-based learning in VET programmes and to promote apprenticeship. Higher vocational education and training launched in 2002 has been expanding. At the same time, numerous sectors are grappling with labour shortages increasing pressure on VET to better match the provision to changing demand for skills; and fewer young people opt for VET programmes than in the past. This report suggests several ways in which the Swedish VET system may respond to these challenges. Sweden may encourage co-operation between schools, for example by linking it to school evaluation and funding criteria. The report also argues that Sweden may further enhance social partners’ involvement in VET by creating a framework for systematic social partners’ involvement at the local level and by providing social partners with more responsibility over some aspects of VET.
  • 22-March-2019

    English

    Multi-dimensional Review of Panama - Volume 3: From Analysis to Action

    This MDCR is designed to help Panama formulate development strategies, and identify and support the policy reforms needed to achieve further sustainable and inclusive development. This review comes at a time when Panama is achieving high economic growth but further policy action is needed to expand socio-economic benefits across all economic sectors, regions and households.
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